The Contracting Parties
Recalling the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
Species of Wild Animals opened for signature in Bonn
on 23 June 1979;
Recognising the unfavourable conservation status
of bats in Europe and non-European Range States and
in particular the serious threat to them from habitat
degradation, disturbance of roosting sites and certain
Conscious that the threats facing bats in Europe
and non-European Range States are common to both migratory
and non-migratory species and that roosts are often
shared by migratory and non-migratory species;
Recalling that the first meeting of the Conference
of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation
of Migratory Species of Wild Animals held in Bonn
in October 1985 agreed to add European species of
CHIROPTERA (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) to
Appendix II of the Convention and instructed the Secretariat
of the Convention to take appropriate measures to
develop an Agreement for these species;
Convinced that the conclusion of an Agreement for
these species would greatly benefit the conservation
of bats in Europe;
Have agreed as follows:
Scope and Interpretation
For the purposes of this Agreement:
(a) "Convention" means the Convention on
the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
(b) "Bats" means European populations of
CHIROPTERA (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) occurring
in Europe and non-European Range States;
(c) "Range State" means any State (whether
or not it is a Party to the Convention) that exercises
jurisdiction over any part of the range of a species
covered by this Agreement;
(d) "Regional Economic Integration Organisation"
means an organisation constituted by sovereign States
to which this Agreement applies and which has competence
in matters covered by this Agreement and has been
duly authorised, in accordance with its internal procedures,
to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to it;
(e) "Parties" means, unless the context
otherwise indicates, Parties to this Agreement;
(f) "In Europe" means the continent of
1. This Agreement is an AGREEMENT within the meaning
of paragraph 3 of Article IV of the Convention.
2. The provisions of this Agreement shall not relieve
Parties of their obligations under any existing treaty,
convention or agreement.
3. Each Party to this Agreement shall designate one
or more competent authorities to whom it shall assign
responsibility for the implementation of this Agreement.
It shall communicate the name and address of its authority
or authorities to the other Parties to this Agreement.
4. Appropriate administrative and financial support
for this Agreement shall be determined by its Parties
in consultation with the Parties to the Convention.
1. Each Party shall prohibit the deliberate capture,
keeping or killing of bats except under permit from
its competent authority.
2. Each Party shall identify those sites within its
own area of jurisdiction which are important for the
conservation status, including for the shelter and
protection, of bats. It shall, taking into account
as necessary economic and social considerations, protect
such sites from damage or disturbance. In addition,
each Party shall endeavour to identify and protect
important feeding areas for bats from damage or disturbance.
3. When deciding which habitats to protect for general
conservation purposes each Party shall give due weight
to habitats that are important for bats.
4. Each Party shall take appropriate measures to
promote the conservation of bats and shall promote
public awareness of the importance of bat conservation.
5. Each Party shall assign to an appropriate body
responsibilities for the provision of advice on bat
conservation and management within its territory particularly
with regard to bats in buildings. Parties shall exchange
information on their experiences in this matter.
6. Each Party shall take such additional action as
it considers necessary to safeguard populations of
bats which it identifies as being subject to threat
and shall report under Article VI on the action taken.
7. Each Party shall, as appropriate, promote research
programmes relating to the conservation and management
of bats. Parties shall consult each other on such
research programmes, and shall endeavour to co-ordinate
such research and conservation programmes.
8. Each Party shall, wherever appropriate, consider
the potential effects of pesticides on bats, when
assessing pesticides for use, and shall endeavour
to replace timber treatment chemicals which are highly
toxic to bats with safer alternatives.
1. Each Party shall adopt and enforce such legislative
and administrative measures as may be necessary for
the purpose of giving effect to this Agreement.
2. The provisions of this Agreement shall in no way
affect the right of Parties to adopt stricter measures
concerning the conservation of bats.
Meetings of the Parties
1. There shall be periodic meetings of the Parties
to this Agreement. The Government of the United Kingdom
shall call the first meeting of the Parties to the
Agreement not later than three years after the date
of entry into force of the Agreement. The Parties
to the Agreement shall adopt rules of procedure for
their meetings and financial rules, including the
provisions on the budget and the scale of contributions
for the next financial period. Such rules shall be
adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present
and voting. Decisions taken under the financial rules
shall require a three-quarters majority of the Parties
present and voting.
2. At their meetings the Parties may establish such
scientific and other working groups as they see fit.
3. Any Range States or Regional Economic Integration
Organisation not a Party to this Agreement, the Secretariat
of the Convention, the Council of Europe in its capacity
as the Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation
of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and similar
intergovernmental organisations may be represented
by observers at meetings of the Parties. Any agency
or body technically qualified in the conservation
and management of bats may be represented by observers
at meetings of the Parties unless at least one-third
of the Parties present object. Only Parties may vote
at meetings of the Parties.
4. Except as provided for in paragraph 5 below, each
Party to this Agreement shall have one vote.
5. Regional Economic Integration Organisations which
are Parties to this Agreement shall, in matters within
their competence, exercise their right to vote with
a number of votes equal to the number of their Member
States which are Parties to the Agreement and present
at the time of the vote. A Regional Economic Integration
Organisation shall not exercise its right to vote
if its Member States exercise theirs, and vice versa.
Reports on Implementation
Each Party shall present to each meeting of the Parties
an up-to-date report on its implementation of this
Agreement. It shall circulate the report to the Parties
not less than 90 days before the opening of the ordinary
Amendment of the Agreement
1. This Agreement may be amended at any meeting of
2. Proposals for amendment may be made by any Party.
3. The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons
for it shall be communicated to the Depositary at
least 90 days before the opening of the meeting. The
Depositary shall transmit copies forthwith to the
4. Amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority
of the Parties present and voting and shall enter
into force for those Parties which have accepted them
60 days after the deposit of the fifth instrument
of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary.
Thereafter, they shall enter into force for a Party
30 days after the date of deposit of its instrument
of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary.
The provisions of this Agreement shall not be subject
to general reservations. However, a Range State or
Regional Economic Integration Organisation may, on
becoming a Party in accordance with Article X or XI,
enter a specific reservation with regard to any particular
species of bat.
Settlement of Disputes
Any dispute which may arise between Parties with
respect to the interpretation or application of the
provisions of this Agreement shall be subject to negotiations
between the Parties involved in the dispute.
Signature, Ratification, Acceptance
This Agreement shall be open to signature by Range
States or Regional Economic Integration Organisations
who may become Parties either by:
(a) signature without reservation in respect of ratification,
acceptance or approval; or
(b) signature with reservation in respect of ratification,
acceptance or approval, followed by ratification,
acceptance or approval.
Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval
shall be deposited with the Depositary.
This Agreement shall remain open for signature until
the date of entry into force of the Agreement.
This Agreement shall be open for accession by Range
States or Regional Economic Integration Organisations
after the date of entry into force of the Agreement.
Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the
Entry into Force
This Agreement shall enter into force on the ninetieth
day following the date on which five Range States
have become Parties in accordance with Article X.
Thereafter it shall enter into force for a signatory
or acceding State on the thirtieth day after the deposit
of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval
Denunciation and Termination
Any Party may denounce this Agreement by written
notification to the Depositary at any time. The denunciation
shall take effect twelve months after the date on
which the Depositary has received the notification.
The Agreement shall remain in force for at least ten
years, and thereafter shall terminate on the date
on which there cease to be at least five Parties thereto.
The original of the Agreement in English, French
and German, each version being equally authentic,
shall be deposited with the Government of the United
Kingdom, which shall be the Depositary and shall transmit
certified copies thereof to all States and any Regional
Economic Integration Organisations that have signed
the Agreement or deposited instruments of ratification,
acceptance, approval or accession.
The Depositary shall inform all Range States and
Regional Economic Integration Organisations of signatures,
deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession, entry into force of this Agreement,
amendments thereto, reservations and notifications
In witness thereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised
to that effect have signed this Agreement.
Done at London this fourth day of December in the
year one thousand nine hundred and ninety-one.