The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks (Sharks MOU) is the first global instrument for the conservation of migratory species of sharks.
At present time, it is estimated that one-quarter of chondrichthyan species are threatened worldwide (Dulvy et al. 2014). Sharks are under serious threat around the globe. In accordance with recent scientific studies (Worm et al. 2013) the number of sharks being killed every year ranges between 63 and 273 million individuals.
The MOU is a legally non-binding international instrument. It aims to achieve and maintain a favourable conservation status for migratory sharks based on the best available scientific information and taking into account the socio-economic value of these species for the people in various countries.
Currently 37 species of sharks and rays are listed in Annex I of the MOU (see list below).
Annex I is open for further listings of species which may include any of the migratory species, subspecies or populations in the Class Chondrichthyes (sharks, rays, skates and chimaeras).
The Conservation Plan is included in Annex III. It is guided by five main objectives:
I. Improving the understanding of migratory shark populations through research, monitoring and information exchange;
II. Ensuring that directed and non-directed fisheries for sharks are sustainable;
III. Ensuring to the extent practicable the protection of critical habitats and migratory corridors and critical life stages of sharks
IV. Increasing public awareness of threats to sharks and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities
V. Enhancing national, regional and international cooperation
In pursuing activities described under this objective, Signatories should endeavor to cooperate through regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), Regional Seas Conventions (RSCs) and biodiversity-related Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs).
The Meeting of Signatories (MOS) is the decision-making body of the MOU and reviews the conservation status of migratory sharks and the implementation of the MOU and Conservation Plan. The MOU is open for signature by all Range States of migratory sharks and states and regional economic integration organizations, flag vessels of which are engaged outside its national jurisdictional limits in taking, or which have the potential to take, migratory sharks. The current number of Signatories is 48, including the European Union.
The Advisory Committee (AC) was established at the First Meeting of Signatories to the Sharks MOU (MOS1), which provides expert advice and suggestions on new initiatives and on the implementation of the MOU to the Secretariat and the Signatories.
Twelve non-governmental organizations have associated themselves as Cooperating Partners.
The CMS Secretariat acts as Secretariat to the Sharks MOU. It facilitates and promotes implementation of co-operative activities by the Signatory States.
|Title||Status||Status date||CMS Party number||Region|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Range State||104||South & Central America & The Caribbean|
|Argentina||Range State||39||South & Central America & The Caribbean|
|Bahamas||Range State||South & Central America & The Caribbean|
|Barbados||Range State||South & Central America & The Caribbean|
|Belize||Range State||South & Central America & The Caribbean|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Range State||126||Europe|
|Brazil||MOU Signatory||2017||122||South & Central America & The Caribbean|
|Brunei Darussalam||Range State||Asia|
|Cabo Verde||Range State||96||Africa|