Poisoning, in its various forms, be it intentional or unintentional, is a significant global problem affecting a wide range of migratory bird species across almost all
habitats. Birds may be exposed to multiple sources of poisoning in their ranges causing lethal and sub-lethal effects, such as a loss of migratory orientation, reduced reproductive output and increased risk of predation, with birds of prey being one of the most vulnerable to poisoning. These impacts include poisoning from:

  • Feeding on rodents and insects exposed to pesticides (particularly, second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides and the insecticides carbamates and organophosphates);
  • Poison baits used to control predators and protect game estates, and harvesting;
  • Feeding on domestic livestock carcasses treated with veterinary pharmaceuticals; and
  • Ingestion of lead ammunition and/or fishing weights directly from the environment or within prey or carrion.

In 2014, the 11th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CMS (COP11) passed Resolution 11.15 (Preventing Poisoning of Migratory Birds) recalling Resolution 10.26 (Minimizing the Risk of Poisoning to Migratory Birds). These Resolutions called on Parties to the Convention, non-Party Range States and other stakeholders, including non-governmental organizations, to engage in co-operative activities and to elaborate strategies to address poisoning of migratory birds. Based on Resolution 10.26, the Preventing Poisoning Working Group was established under the CMS Scientific Council. Its continuation was proposed by Resolution 11.15 (Rev. COP12) in order to facilitate concerted efforts, actions and procedures to prevent poisoning of migratory birds.

Please find here a compilation of guides to mitigate the threat of illegal poisoning to migratory birds of prey.



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