Each year millions of birds die worldwide as a result of collisions with above ground power lines. The impact on populations is likely to increase as energy infrastructure continues to grow, especially in developing countries. As for electrocution, the risks can be significant in old, poorly sited power lines. Under the current commitments to reduce carbon emissions, Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are increasing their investments in renewable energy, particularly large wind farms. However, any renewable energy installations (e.g. solar and geothermal generation facilities) will inevitably lead to an expansion of the powerline distribution network which will likely increase the risk of collisions for migratory birds of prey in certain areas. Despite their acute vision, birds’ field of view and normal head position, particulary vultures and eagles, when foraging can make them unaware of obstructions in their direction of travel, and they may be particularly vulnerable to collisions with infrastructure such as wind turbines and powerlines (Martin et al. 2012). The proliferation of renewable energy initiatives can therefore be detrimental to migratory birds of prey if the location of turbines and associated infrastructure are in areas favoured by these birds (Jenkins et al. 2010).


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