Eretmochelys imbricata

Dans la majeure partie du monde, et en particulier dans les régions tropicales et subtropicales, les animaux sauvages aquatiques sont capturés ou attrapés de façon opportuniste, et leur viande, les parties de leurs corps et/ou leurs œufs sont consommés à des fins de subsistance locale ou utilisés à des fins traditionnelles.

22 Mar 2022

La 2ème réunion du Groupe de travail sur les tortues marines du nord de l’océan Indien, mis en place par le MdE de la CMS sur les tortues marines de la région IOSEA, s’est tenue les 29 et 30 janvier et était organisée par le Ministère de la conservation des espèces sauvages du Sri Lanka, à Colombo. Ouverte par le Secrétaire Douglas Nanayakkara, du Ministère du Développement durable et des espèces sauvages, le principal objectif de la réunion était de trouver un accord sur des actions régionales concertées afin de conserver les tortues marines.

30 Jan 2018
Description: 

The hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtle is small to medium-sized compared to other sea turtle species. In the Indian Ocean region, adults weigh 45 to 70 kg, but can grow to as large as 90 kg. Female hawksbills return to their natal beaches every 2-3 years to nest. A female hawksbill may lay 3-5, or even more, nests per season, each of which contains an average of 130 eggs.

Hawksbill turtles, like other marine turtles, use different habitats at different stages of their life cycle, but this species is most commonly associated with coral reefs. Post-hatchlings (oceanic stage juveniles) are believed to occupy the pelagic environment. After a few years in the pelagic zone, small juveniles recruit to coastal foraging grounds. This shift in habitat also involves a shift in feeding strategies, from feeding primarily at the surface to feeding below the surface, primarily on animals associated with coral reef environments.  Their narrow, pointed beaks allow them to prey selectively on soft-bodied animals like sponges and soft corals.

Hawksbill turtles are circumtropical, typically occurring from 30°N to 30°S latitude. In modern times hawksbills are solitary nesters (although some scientists postulate that before their populations were devastated they may have nested on some beaches in concentrations) and, thus, determining population trends or estimates on nesting beaches is difficult. 

Although generally not found in large concentrations, hawksbills are widely distributed in the Indian Ocean. There, the largest nesting populations  – which are among the largest in the world – occur in the Seychelles, Indonesia and Australia.  Adult hawksbill turtles are capable of migrating long distances between nesting beaches and foraging areas, although the migration distances are generally not as long as those for green turtles.

Exploitation of hawksbills, primarily for their "tortoise shell" (the thick, overlapping, horny scutes that cover the shell), dates back millennia in the Indian Ocean. The shell was sought after for manufacture of diverse articles in both the Orient and Europe, and it constituted one of the most important trade commodities in a well developed trade network in the Indian Ocean. Many populations were decimated.  However decades-long protection programmes in some places, particularly at several beaches in the Indian Ocean, have resulted in population recovery. Today, interactions with fisheries are especially important in coastal fisheries where nets are used.

The preceding biological information on marine turtle species found around the Indian Ocean is derived partly from the NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, website:(http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles/), supplemented by other sources (such as a website of the Australian Government, Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts -- for information on the Flatback turtle), and additional information supplied by Dr. Jack Frazier (IOSEA Advisory Committee Chair). 

 

Information d'évaluation
Instruments de la CMSCMS, IOSEA Marine Turtles, Atlantic Turtles
IUCN StatusCritically endangered
Date of entry in Appendix I1985
Date d'inscription à l'Annexe II1979
Répartition géographique
Pays Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Brazil, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa), Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, France, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, São Tomé and Príncipe, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen
Noms communs
AnglaisHawksbill Turtle
FrançaisTortue Imbriquée, Caret
EspagnolTortuga carey
AllemandEchte karettschildkröte
Taxonomie
ClasseReptilia
OrdreTestudinata
FamilleCheloniidae
Nom scientifique Eretmochelys imbricata
Author(Linnaeus, 1766)
Standard referenceEckert, K.L., Bjorndal, K.A., Abreu-Grobois, F.A. and Donnelly, M. (Eds) (1999). Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication No.4.

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Other details
Additional notesIn Effect 7/1/1999

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