The synthesis paper "Illegal Take and Trade of Marine Turtles in the IOSEA Region" was originally tabled at the Seventh Meeting of IOSEA Signatory States (Bonn, Germany, September 2014). The Secretariat prepared the paper in response to concerns expressed at the Sixth Meeting (Bangkok, January 2012) that illegal take and trade of marine turtles and their derivatives was largely under-reported by Signatory States, suggesting a need for closer examination of the problem.

The paper examines the patterns and trends in illegal turtle take and trade in the IOSEA region since the year 2000 and reviews various studies and measures undertaken by governments, intergovernmental bodies and NGOs. The study considers only illegal take, leaving aside legal slaughter, traditional/cultural take for personal consumption (where this is legal), and unintentional killing of turtles during fishing operations. It considers all IOSEA Signatory States (35 countries) and a number of non-Signatories (Brunei Darussalam, China, Japan, Republic of Korea and Singapore). As IOSEA sources alone are insufficient to provide a comprehensive understanding of the issue, the paper also draws upon several other sources of information readily available to the IOSEA Secretariat. The analysis is mostly organised with reference to the four IOSEA sub-regions, namely: South-East Asia and proximity (SEA+), Northern Indian Ocean (NIO), Northwest Indian Ocean (NWIO) and Western Indian Ocean (WIO).

The analysis was constrained by the fact that there are not many studies on the levels and drivers of take and trade in marine turtles, nor are there many accounts of initiatives taken nationally and regionally to address the issue. Sources were found to be most abundant for the IOSEA SEA+ sub-region, followed by the WIO sub-region. Only limited data were available for the NWIO and NIO sub-regions.

Since the preparation of the synthesis in 2014, the IOSEA Secretariat has prepared an abbreviated version of the paper for submission as an information document to the 66th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Geneva, January 2016). The Executive Summary includes additional information provided by the Secretariat pro tempore of the 'Inter-American Convention' concerning illegal take/trade issues in the region covered by that binding agreement. The paper was prepared in consultation with Signatory States and Parties of both instruments, in particular, the IOSEA 'Working Group on Illegal Take of and Trade in Marine Turtles', and the IAC Scientific Committee. 

Although the CITES Secretariat declined to submit the document as an in-session paper for discussion at the SC meeting, there will be many other opportunities over the coming year for interested countries to raise the profile of illegal take/trade of marine turtles, including at the CITES COP17 (Johannesburg, Sept/Oct 2016). The IUCN World Conservation Congress, being held in Hawaii in September 2016, will surely include a discussion of illegal trade in freshwater turtles, and this might also present an opportunity to join forces with the concerned IUCN Specialist Group. 

Coincidentally, illegal global trade in wildlife is receiving increasing attention among a broad spectrum of international organisations which have formed the “International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime” – namely, the CITES Secretariat, the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the World Bank, and the World Customs Organization. 

For its part, the United Nations Environment Assembly has charged the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with facilitating implementation of its Resolution 1/3 on Illegal Trade in Wildlife. Among other things, UNEP is analysing the environmental impacts of illegal trade in wildlife, undertaking a global public awareness-raising initiative to address knowledge gaps, and is supporting government efforts to strengthen environmental rule of law. While many of these initiatives appear to have a bias towards terrestrial wildlife, the availability of the joint IOSEA-IAC paper offers a unique opportunity to insert marine species into the mix. 

All CMS/IOSEA Signatory States that have an interest in the topic are encouraged to make use of the Executive Summary when considering potential interventions in relevant international fora.

Click to download the Executive Summary here or visit the CITES website to view the same paper presented to the CITES Standing Committee as Inf. Doc. SC66 Inf.7.


IOSEA/WWF Fact sheet based on the IOSEA synthesis paper

The Fact Sheet "Illegal trade and take of marine turtles in the Indian Ocean South East Asia region" was produced in March 2015 by the IOSEA Secretariat in cooperation with WWF. It is based on the conclusions of the IOSEA synthesis paper presented at the Seventh Meeting of IOSEA Signatory States (Bonn, September 2014).


The following bibliography references a selection of peer-reviewed papers, project reports, and academic theses relevant to the issue of marine turtle take and trade in the IOSEA region and which were published since the year 2000. Hyperlinks are provided for those publications that are freely available online. Suggestions for additional publications are welcome. (Apologies in advance for any broken links.)

— Ahmed, M., Wagiman, S., Ibrahim, K., Ho, S.C., Liew, H.C., Yeo, B.H., Lau, M.M., Basiron, M.N. and Sharma, D.S.K. (eds). 2006. Charting Multidisciplinary Research and Action Priorities towards the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Sea Turtles in the Pacific Ocean: A Focus on Malaysia, 16-17 August 2004, Terengganu, Malaysia. In The WorldFish Center Workshop Proceedings pp. 74, 106.

— Alacrity. 2011. Alacrity, Orissa. Indian Ocean Turtle Newsletter 13, pp. 18-20.

— Andriamalala, G., Gardner, C. J. 2010. L’utilisation du dina comme outil de gouvernance des ressources naturelles : leçons tirées de Velondriake, sud-ouest de Madagascar. Blue Ventures.

— Aureggi, M. 2010. Thirteen years of sea turtle conservation in South Thailand: are we avoiding extinction? InProceedings of the 5th International Symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian Bio-logging Science (The 9th SEASTAR2000 workshop) pp. 21-24.

— Bagarinao, T.U. 2010. The sea turtles captured by coastal fisheries in the Northeastern Sulu Sea, Philippines: Documentation, care and release. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(3):353–363.

— Baobab Trust. 2010. Sea Turtle Annual Report: Baobab Trust’s sea turtle conservation project since 1989.

— Haller, R. D., Singh, S. 2010. Sea Turtle Annual Report: Baobab Trust’s sea turtle conservation project since 1989. Baobab Trust.

— Basintal, P. 2013. Management of the Turtle Islands Heritage Protected Area. Regional Meeting on Conservation and Management of Sea Turtle Foraging Habitats in Southeast Asian Water. 22-24 October 2013. Kuala Lumpur.

— Bin Wagiman, S., Sharma, D.S.K., Chark, L. 2006. Socioeconomic Linkages and Impacts of Fisheries on Sea Turtle Population. In Ahmed, M., Wagiman, S., Ibrahim, K., Ho, S.C., Liew, H.C., Yeo, B.H., Lau, M.M., Basiron, M.N. and Sharma, D.S.K. (eds). 2006. Charting Multidisciplinary Research and Action Priorities towards the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Sea Turtles in the Pacific Ocean: A Focus on Malaysia, 16-17 August 2004, Terengganu, Malaysia. The WorldFish Center Workshop Proceedings. pp.74, 106.

— Blue Ventures. 2010. Using community members to assess artisanal fisheries: the marine turtle fishery in Madagascar. Animal Conservation 14:2, pp.175–185.

— Buchanan, G., Altman, J., Arthur, B., Oades, D., Bardi Jawi Rangers. 2009. “Always part of us”. The socioeconomics of Indigenous customary use and management of dugong and marine turtles — a view from Bardi and Jawi sea country, Western Australia. NAILSMA Knowledge series Research Report 001/2009.

— C3-Comoros. 2007. Stakeholder's perceptions of Moheli Marine Park, Comoros: lessons learned from 5 years of co-management. C3 Technical Report Series No.4. ISSN 1754-5188. Community Centred Conservation (C3), London, UK. pp.34.

— Chan, E. H. 2006. "Marine turtles in Malaysia: On the verge of extinction?". Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 9(2):175-184.

— Chan, E.H. 2004. Turtles in Trouble. Siri Syarahan Inaugural KUSTEM: 7. Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia (now known as Universiti Malaysia Terengganu). ISBN 983-2888-07-7.

— Cornelius, S.E, Arauz, R., Fretey, J., Godfrey, M.H., Márquez-M, R. & Shanker, K. 2007. Effect of land-based harvest of Lepidochelys. In Biology and Conservation of ridley turtles. Plotkin, P. and Morreale, S. (eds). Johns Hopkins Press, USA.

— Costa, A., Motta, H., Pereira, M. A., Videira, E. J., Louro, C. M., & João, J. 2007. Marine Turtles in Mozambique: towards an effective conservation and management program. Marine Turtle Newsletter 117: 1-3.

— Dalleau, M., Benhamou, S., Sudre, J., Ciccione, S. and Bourjea, J. 2013. Movement and diving behavior of late juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Western Indian Ocean. Working Party on Ecosystems and Bycatch. IOTC-2013-WPEB09-26.

— Dethmers, K.E.M. and Baxter, P.W.J. 2011. Extinction risk analysis of exploited green turtle stocks in the Indo-Pacific. Animal Conservation 14(2):140-150.

— Donnelly, M. 2011. Sea turtles and CITES. SWOT report, Vol. VI.

— Ekanayake, E. M. L., Ranawana, K.B., Kapurusinghe, T., Premakumara, M.G.C., and Saman, M.M. 2002. Marine Turtle Conservation In Rekawa Turtle Rookery In Southern Sri Lanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Science) 30:79-88.

— EPAFI. 2005. Zambales Turtle Conservation Program 2004-2005.

— United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Mohéli Marine Park, Comoros. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York.

— Ferraro, P.J. 2007. A global survey of sea turtle payment incentive programs. NOAA Paper Global Survey Final Draft.

— Frazier, J.G., Arauz, R., Chevalier, J., Formia, A., Fretey, J., Godfrey, M.H., Marquez-M, R., Pandav, B. & Shanker, K. 2007. Exploitation of Lepidochelys at sea. In Biology and Conservation of ridley turtles. Plotkin, P. and Morreale, S (eds). Johns Hopkins Press, USA.

— Frontier-Madagascar. 2003. Artisanal and traditional turtle resource utilisation in South West Madagascar. Frontier-Madagascar Environmental Research Report 2. Society for Environmental Exploration, UK and the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Toliara, Madagascar.

— Garnier, J. and Silva, I. 2007. Cabo Delgado Biodiversity and Tourism Project. Marine turtle programme: Report of activities 2006 / 2007. Zoological Society of London / Maluane Mozambique.

— Garnier, J, Silva, I., Davidson, J., Hill, N., Muaves, L., Mucaves, S., Guissamulo, A. and Shaw, A. 2008. Co-management of the reef at Vamizi Island, northern Mozambique. In Ten Years after Bleaching—Facing the Consequences of Climate Change in the Indian Ocean. Obura, D.O., Tamelander, J., and Linden, O (eds). CORDIO Status Report. pp.121-128.

— Gibbons, E. and Remaneva, L. 2011. Curio Trade: Southwest Madagascar. ReefDoctors report.

— Gjertsen, H. and Niesten, E. 2010. Incentive-based Approaches in Marine Conservation: Applications for Sea Turtles. Conservation & Society 8(1):5-14.

— Gjertsen, H. and Stevenson, T. 2009. Direct Incentive Approaches for Leatherback Turtle Conservation. In Conservation of Pacific Sea Turtles. Dutton, P. H., Squires, D. and Ahmed, M (eds.) University of Hawaii Press.

— Gough, C., Thomas, T., Humber, F., Harris, A., Cripps, G. and Peabody, S. 2009. Vezo fishing: An introduction to the methods used by fishers in Andavadoaka, southwest Madagascar. Blue Ventures Conservation, London.

— Green, M. J. B. and Islam, S. T. 2012. Terminal evaluation: Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management at Cox’s Bazar and Hakaluki Haor. GEF, UNDP Bangladesh.

— Griffiths, O. and Tatayah, V. 2007. Rapid survey of marine turtles in Agalega, Western Indian Ocean. Marine Turtle Newsletter 115:14-16.

— Grolleau, A. 2008. Les actions de la Brigade Nature de Mayotte pour la conservation de l’Environnement. Faune sauvage n.284/ Avril 2009.

— Hamann, M., Limpus, C., Hughes, G., Mortimer, J., Pilcher, N. 2006. Assessment of the conservation status of the leatherback turtle in the Indian Ocean and South East Asia. IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU Secretariat 2006. pp.59, 135, 141.

— Hasan, M. M. 2009. Tourism and Conservation of Biodiversity: A Case Study of St. Martins Island, Bangladesh. Law, Social Justice & Global Development Journal.

— Hilterman, M. and Goverse, E. 2005. A note on the illegal trade in stuffed turtles in South Java Indonesia. Marine Turtle Newsletter 109:9.

— Humber, F., Godley, B. J. and Broderick, A. C. 2014. So excellent a fishe: a global overview of legal marine turtle fisheries. Diversity and Distributions 20:579-590.

— Islam, M. Z. 2001. Notes on the Trade in Marine Turtle Products in Bangladesh. Marine Turtle Newsletter 94:10-11.

— IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.

— JWCS. 2000. Hawksbill Trade Revived? Analysis of the Management System of Domestic "bekko" Trade in Japan. Japan Wildlife Conservation Society, Tokyo.

— Jones, K. N. 2012. Examining trends in taste preference, market demand, and annual catch in an indigenous marine turtle fishery in southwest Madagascar. Research Thesis, Washington State University.

— Kapurusinghe, T. 2012. Turtle night watch nature tourism: Sharing benefits to sustain local community and sea turtles in Rekawa Sanctuary, Sri Lanka. In Sustainable hospitality and tourism as motors for development: case studies from developing regions of the world. London: Routledge, ISBN 978-012-385-196-3. pp. 377-389.

— Kinch, J. and Burgess, E.A. 2009. An assessment of the trade in hawksbill turtles in Papua New Guinea. TRAFFIC Bulletin 22(2):62-72.

— Kinch, J. 2006. A Socio-economic Assessment of the Huon Coast Leatherback Turtle Nesting Beach Projects (Labu Tale, Busama,Lababia and Paiawa), Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council, Honolulu.

— Kinch, J. 2001. Social evaluation study for the Milne Bay Community-Based Coastal and Marine Conservation Program. Report to the United Nations Development Program (Papua New Guinea/99/G41), Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

— Koczberski, G., Curry, G., Warku, J., and Kwam, C. 2006. Village based Marine Resource Use and Rural Livelihoods: Kimbe Bay, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea. TNC Pacific Islands Countries Report, No. 5/06.

— Koopman, M. 2008. Velondriake ecotourism plan. Blue Ventures Conservation Report.

— Lam, T., Ling, X., Takahashi, S., and Burgess, E.A. 2011. Market Forces: An Examination of Marine Turtle Trade in China and Japan. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong.

— Lamcot. 2010. Annual Report 2009-2010.

— Langley J. 2006. Vezo knowledge: Traditional ecological knowledge in Andavadoaka, Southwest Madagascar. Blue Ventures.

— Louro, C. M. M., Videira, E. J. S, Pereira, M. A. M. and Fernandes, R. 2012. Monitoring, tagging and conservation of marine turtles in Mozambique: annual report 2011/12. Maputo. CTV/AICM.

— Louro, C. M. M., Pereira, M. & Costa, A. 2006. Report on the Conservation Status of Marine Turtles in Mozambique. January 2006. Centro de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel para as Zonas Costeiras.

— Mahenge, J. 2008. A successful co-management of marine turtle conservation in Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park, Tanzania. 28th Sea Turtle Symposium. Loreto, Mexico, 19-26 January 2008.

— McLellan, E., Arps, E., Donnelly, M. and Leslie, A. 2012. WWF Global Marine Turtle Strategy 2.0 2012–2020. WWF. Gland, Switzerland

— Mobaraki, A. 2010. Results of Sea turtle Study in Iran and The Conservation Needs. EWS-WWF Second Marine Conservation Forum. Abu Dhabi, UAE. pp.10.

— MoFI. 2004. Marine Turtle Conservation Action Plan to 2010 in Viet Nam. Viet Nam Ministry of Fisheries. Decision 175/QD-BTS, Ha Noi.

— MoFI. 2003. Conservation Status Report: Marine Turtles and their Habitats in Viet Nam. Conservation Status Report. Viet Nam Ministry of Fisheries and IUCN, Ha Noi.

— Mortimer, J.A. 2009. History of turtle exploitation in Chagos. Chagos News 34:14-16.

— Mortimer, J.A. 2004. Seychelles Marine Ecosystem Management Project (SEYMEMP)-Turtle component: Final report-Appendices 1 to 11. pp.1-159.

— Mortimer, J.A. 2000. Sea turtle conservation programmes: Factors determining success or failure. In Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A guide for planners and managers. Salm, R.V., Clark, J.R. and Siirila, E (eds). IUCN, Washington D.C. pp.1-371.

— Mortimer, J.A., Collie, J. and Mbindo, C. 1998. Status and conservation of sea turtles in the Republic of Seychelles. In Status of Sea Turtle Conservation in the Western Indian Ocean. Humphrey, S.L. and Salm, R.V. (eds). Regional Seas Reports and Studies. No.165. IUCN/UNEP. pp.103-115.

— Motta, H. 2004. WWF Mozambique targets illegal curios.

— Muttenzer F. 2007. ‘Different kinds of people of the sea’: écologie, mobilité et ethnicité chez les Vezo de Madagascar. Etude de gouvernance locale des tortues marines aux îles Barren, Maintirano.

— Muurmans, M. 2011. Community conservation programs built to last. SWOT Report VI.

— Nada, M. A. 2001. Observations on the trade in sea turtles at the fish market of Alexandria, Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 24(1):109-118.

— Nada, M. A. 2001. Status of the Sea Turtle Trade in Alexandria's Fish Market. Marine Turtle Newsletter 95:5-8.

— Nzuki, S. 2005. KESCOM study exposes rampant turtle trade. In Marine turtle update: Recent news from the WWF Africa and Madagascar marine turtle programme. Humphrey,S.L. and Wilson, A (eds). pp.7-9.

— Nzuki, S. 2004. KESCOM surveying trade in turtle product. In Marine turtle update: Recent news from the WWF Africa and Madagascar marine turtle programme. Humphrey,S.L. and Wilson, A (eds). pp.15-16.

— Oman, R. 2013. The local ocean trust: Watamu turtle watch by-catch net release programme. Indian Ocean Turtle Newsletter 17:5.

— Pascal, B. 2008. De la «Terre des Ancêtres» aux Territoires des vivants: Les enjeux locaux de la gouvernance sur le littoral sud-ouest de Madagascar. PhD thesis, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.

— Poonian, C. and Whitty, T. Socioeconomic Drivers of Sea Turtle Interactions with Artisanal Fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean Islands. Community Centred Conservation (C3). Unpublished.

— ProFauna Indonesia. 2010. Trade of Sea Turtle Eggs in Kalimantan.

— ProFauna Indonesia. 2008. Sea Turtle Exploitation in the Name of Conservation in Bali.

— ProFauna Indonesia. 2007. Annual Report 2007.

— Profauna Indonesia. 2005. Final report on the sea turtle trade on the south coast of Java.

— Profauna Indonesia. 2003. Hawksbill trade in Indonesia.

— Rahman, M. M. 2006. Marine Turtle Illegal Trade in the Southwest Coastal part of Bangladesh. Centre for Coastal Environmental Conservation (CCEC), Bangladesh.

— Rajakaruna, R. S., Wijayatilaka, N., Ekanayake, E. L., and Ranawana, K. B. 2012. Tortoiseshell Trade in Sri Lanka: Is Centuries-old Trade Now History? Marine Turtle Newsletter 134:9-11.

— Rajakaruna, R. S., Naveen, D.M., Dissanayake, J., Ekanayake, E.M. and Lalith Ranawana, K. B. 2009. Sea turtle conservation in Sri Lanka: assessment of knowledge, attitude and prevalence of consumptive use of turtle products among coastal communities. Indian Ocean Turtle Newsletter 10:1-13.

— Rakotondrazafy A. M. N. A. and Andrianasolo R. M. 2012. Evaluation préliminaire de la filière tortue marine dans la baie de Moramba, les zones de Marovasa Be et d’Anjajavy. Cétamada.

— Rakotonirina, B.P., Razafinjara, A.L. and Harding, S.P. 2004. Madagascar Status Report. Western Indian Ocean (WIO) Region. Marine Turtle Workshop.

— Razafindrakoto, Y. 2013. Conservation des ressources naturelles du parc marin de Nosy Hara. Efforts entrepris par Conservation Centrée sur la Communauté C3 Madagascar.

— Réseau Echouage Mahorais de MAmmifères marins et de Tortues marines. 2013. Bilan de l’année 2012: 84% des tortues marines retrouvées mortes ont été braconnées. REMMAT.

— Richardson, P. 2002. Tortoise shell industry in Sri Lanka: a survey report 1996. In a collection of TCP Research Papers Vol 1. Ekanayake, L. The Turtle conservation Project (TCP) Sri Lanka. pp.1-15.

— Robin des Bois. 2014. On the Trail: Information and analysis bulletin on animal poaching and smuggling. no.4.

— Robin des Bois. 2013. On the Trail: Information and analysis bulletin on animal poaching and smuggling. no.3.

— Robin des Bois. 2013. On the Trail: Information and analysis bulletin on animal poaching and smuggling. no.2.

— Robin des Bois. 2013. On the Trail: Information and analysis bulletin on animal poaching and smuggling. no.1.

— Sabah Parks. 2013. Management of the Turtle Island’s Protected Area. Regional Meeting on Conservation and Management of Sea Turtle Foraging Habitats in South East Asian Waters. AnCasa Hotel & Spa, Kuala Lumpur.

— SAWEN. 2008. The First Regional Workshop on the South Asia Wildlife Trade Initiative. Workshop Report, Kathmandu, Nepal.

— Sea Sense. 2012. Community Based Conservation of Threatened Marine Species and Habitats in Tanzania. Sea Sense Annual Report: January – December 2012.

— Stiles, D. 2008. An assessment of the marine turtle products trade in Viet Nam. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia Report. Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

— TRAFFIC. 2013. Seizures and Prosecutions. TRAFFIC Bulletin Vol. 16(3)(March 1997) to Vol. 25(2)(October 2013).

— TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. 2009. Survey of marine turtle egg consumption and trade in Malaysia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia for WWF Malaysia.

— TRAFFIC Southeast Asia–Indochina. 2004. The trade in marine turtle products in Vietnam. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia for the Marine Turtle Conservation and Management Team, Viet Nam.

— Trono, R. B. and Cantos, J. A. B. 2002. Conserving Migratory Species Through Ecoregion Conservation Approach: The Case of Sea Turtles in Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion. Tropical Coasts. pp.44-49.

— Troëng S. and Drews C. 2004. Money talks: Economic aspects of marine turtle use and conservation. WWF-International. Gland, Switzerland.

— UNDP. 2008. Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management at Cox’s Bazar and Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh. Mid-Term Project Evaluation.

— UNDP. 2002. Community-based Coastal and Marine Conservation in Milne Bay Province. GEF.

— Van der Meeren, S. and Huong Thuy Phan, N. 2009. Final Evaluation of the UNDP/GEF Project: Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use in the Con Dao islands region. UNDP.

— Van Dijk, P.P. and Shepherd, C.R. 2004. Shelled out? A snapshot of Bekko trade in selected locations in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.

— Visakha Society for the Protection and Care of Animals. 2013. Report on the Olive Ridley sea turtle protection programme 2012-2013. VSPCA. India.

— Waayers, D. 2006. Potential for developing marine turtle tourism as an alternative to hunting in Bali and Indonesia. Indian Ocean Turtle Newsletter 4:12-13.

— Walker, R.C.J., Roberts, E. and Fanning, E. 2004. The trade of marine turtles in the Toliara region, South West Madagascar. Marine Turtle Newsletter 106:7-10.

— West, L. 2008. Community-based endangered marine species conservation: Tanzania. Annual Report 2008. Sea Sense.

— Williams, J. 2013. Moz Turtles: Searching for practical solutions to sea turtle poaching in Mozambique. African Diver Magazine 26:18-25.

— Williams, J. 2012. Searching for Practical Solutions to Sea Turtle Poaching in Mozambique. The Rufford Foundation Project Final report.

— Win, A.H. and Lwin, M.M. 2012. Interaction between Fishing Activities and Marine Turtles in Myanmar. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on SEASTAR2000 and Asian Bio-logging Science (The 11th SEASTAR2000 workshop). pp.5-7.

— WWF–Indonesia. 2004. Case study 1: Green turtle consumption in Bali, Indonesia. In Money talks: Economic aspects of marine turtle use and conservation. Troëng S. and Drews C (eds). WWF-International. Gland, Switzerland.

— WWF. 2005. The status of marine turtles in the United Republic of Tanzania, East Africa.

— WWF. 2005. Turtle Islands: resources and livelihoods under threat. A case study on the Philippines.

— Zanre, R. 2005. Report on Watamu Turtle Watch's sea turtle bycatch release programme, Watamu, Kenya: April 1998-May 2004. pp. 1-87.