Target 9: International and regional action and cooperation between States for the conservation and effective management of migratory species fully reflects a migration systems approach, in which all States sharing responsibility for the species concerned engage in such actions in a concerted way.
► The COP Resolution 12.21 Climate Change and Migratory Species includes:
10. Urges Parties and invites relevant international organizations, bilateral and multilateral donors to support financially the implementation of the POW including through the provision of financial and other assistance to developing countries for relevant capacity building;
Cooperation and implementation
• Work closely with and provide national UNFCCC Focal Points with expert guidance and support on how migratory species can be affected by human mitigation and adaptation activities, such as renewable energy and bio-energy development, and to collaborate closely in order to develop joint solutions aimed at minimizing negative impacts on migratory species.
• Strengthen synergies with the Secretariats of CBD, UNFCCC, UNCCD, the Ramsar Convention, the World Heritage Convention, IWC, the Arctic Council and CAFF, the Bern Convention, and other international instruments and arrangements.
• Engage in and support CMS work related to climate change. (CBD, UNFCCC, UNCCD, Ramsar Convention, World Heritage Convention, IWC, Arctic Council and CAFF, Bern Convention, and other international instruments and arrangements such as the InterAmerican Convention (IAC) for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, international mechanisms such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), and other relevant international instruments and arrangements
• Make use of available funding mechanisms to support the maintenance of ecosystem services, with the close involvement of local communities, in order to improve the conservation status of migratory species.
• Put in place those legislative, administrative, management and other measures necessary to implement the actions set out in this programme of work, including the incorporation of such measures in national climate change strategies, National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), protected area management plans, and other relevant policy instruments and processes.
2. Urges Parties to take appropriate measures to ensure that their legislative framework provides for penalties for wildlife crime that are effective, act as a deterrent and reflect the gravity of the offence and provide for the confiscation of specimens taken in violation of the Convention;
3. Urges Parties and invites non-Parties to strengthen national and transboundary law enforcement with emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation and intelligence sharing between relevant stakeholders, such as rangers, wildlife management, customs, police and the military;
4. Suggests that Parties and non-Parties establish cooperative bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the management of shared wildlife populations and habitats with common boundaries, in order to minimize illegal taking and trafficking;
5. Encourages Parties, where relevant and appropriate, to enhance cooperation for the repatriation of live, illegally-traded wildlife and promote the establishment of legal frameworks in recipient countries that ensure a timely and cost-efficient repatriation of live animals and eggs, ensuring that any such framework is consistent with Parties’ obligations under CITES and subject to relevant biosecurity and environmental concerns and policies
8. Suggests the enacting of national laws that prohibit the possession and sale of illegally obtained wildlife specimens and products other than those that have been confiscated;
9. Recommends that Parties and non-Parties work to reduce demand for illegally obtained wildlife specimens and products within their domestic markets and utilize the CMS framework to exchange knowledge and lessons learned regarding successful demand-side reduction strategies;
► The Memorandum of Understanding concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia - Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:
Objective 1 - National, Regional and International Collaboration and Cooperation:
1.1) Promote and enhance national, regional and international coordination and collaboration for the conservation of small cetaceans in western Africa.
Objective 6 – Enhance national, regional and international cooperation:
6.2) Develop and implement mechanisms for effective exchange of information.
6.3) Improve coordination among government and non-government sectors and communities in the conservation of dugongs and their habitats.
6.4) Develop and implement a regional database of relevant information in relation to dugong conservation and management.
Objective 7 – Promote implementation of the MoU:
7.4) Create links and develop synergies with other relevant regional conservation conventions, MoUs and Agreements.
► The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:
Objective 5 - Enhance national, regional and international cooperation:
5.3.a) Identify and strengthen existing mechanisms for cooperation at the sub-regional level.
5.3.e) Develop networks for cooperative management of shared populations, within or across sub-regions, and, where appropriate, formalise cooperative management arrangements.
5.3 f) Cooperate where possible in the establishment of transboundary marine protected areas using ecological rather than political boundaries.
Objective 2 - Protect, conserve and restore terrestrial and marine habitats for marine turtles:
2.1.6) Initiate and cooperate in the creation of transboundary protected marine areas, including nesting beaches and feeding and developmental areas.
► The CMS COP Resolution 12. 11 on Flywaysincludes:
11. Encourages the Secretariat to liaise with the secretariats of CMS instruments, relevant MEAs, international organizations, international conservation initiatives, NGOs and the private sector to promote synergies and coordinate activities related to the conservation of flyways and migratory birds including, where appropriate, the organization of back-toback meetings and joint activities;
15. Invites Parties to implement Resolution 11.26 on climate change and continue taking action to mitigate the impacts of climate change on migratory bird species, including addressing immediate threats that might reduce adaptive potential, ensuring adequate environmental safeguards for renewable energy projects, monitoring the status of migratory birds and their habitats, developing indicators to identify the effects of climate change, promoting adaptive management, seeking new partnerships with other international bodies and considering how to assist species to adapt to climate change (e.g. through securing critical site networks)
21. Calls upon the Secretariat, in collaboration with Parties and relevant international organizations, to strengthen cooperation with the Arctic Council and other bodies focused on the Arctic in order to improve understanding of the ongoing and predicted changes to the environment and impacts on breeding and moulting distributions of species, and to ensure designation and management of all critically important areas;
22. Requests the Secretariat to strengthen links with the Secretariat of the Arctic Council's Working Group on the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), in the framework of the existing Resolution of Cooperation, especially to ensure that the CAFF Arctic Migratory Bird Initiative (AMBI) has maximum synergies with the POW to capitalize on the flyway approach in gaining global support for the conservation of the arctic environment;
23. Calls upon the Secretariat, in collaboration with Parties and relevant international organizations, to strengthen cooperation with the private sector to promote development and inclusion of flyway considerations into their operational guidance, to take up stewardship of areas directly linked to or associated with their footprint and beyond, to consider compensation for residual impacts along flyways, to strive for Net Positive Impact, and to be pro-active in using international best practice;
24. Requests Parties, GEF, the United Nations and other international organizations, bilateral and multilateral donors, the private sector and others to provide financial assistance to developing and the least developed countries, countries with economies in transition, the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and NGO partners for the implementation of this Resolution
► The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU) includes:
8.d) encourages Signatories to endeavour to cooperate in emergency situations requiring concerted international action, in developing appropriate emergency procedures to improve the conservation of bird of prey populations and in preparing guidelines to assist individual Signatories in addressing such situations.
1. Calls on Parties, non-Parties and other stakeholders, including non-governmental organizations, to engage in immediate cooperation to address the illegal killing, taking and trade of migratory birds through support of, and collaboration with, existing international initiatives and mechanisms to address these issues, as well as establishing (as appropriate and where added value can be assured) Task Forces targeted at facilitating concerted action to eliminate illegal killing, taking and trade of shared populations of migratory birds in those areas where such problems are prevalent;
2. Calls on the Secretariat to convene an Intergovernmental Task Force to Address Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean in conjunction with the Secretariats of AEWA, the Raptors MOU, the AEMLAP and the Bern Convention, involving the Mediterranean Parties, including the European Union, other interested Parties, including from outside the region, and other stakeholders such as BirdLife International and the Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU (FACE), to facilitate the implementation of that existing guidelines and action plans, any necessary new guidelines and action plans relating to the Mediterranean (particularly the Tunis Action Plan) and to consider whether any new guidelines, action plans or other recommendations to respond to specific problems are necessary;
6. Calls also on the Secretariat actively to work with Parties and non-Party Range States and others in South and Central America and the Caribbean to conduct an assessment of Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in that region;
7. Urges Parties and encourages non-Parties, to ensure adequate national legislation to protect migratory species is in place and properly implemented and enforced, in line with CMS and its relevant associated instruments and other international instruments;
8. Urges Parties and invites non-Parties to promote and ensure synergies between work to implement the Guidelines to Prevent Poisoning of Migratory Birds as adopted through Resolution 11.15, in particular in relation to poisoned baits, and to prevent illegal killing of birds;
11. Calls on Parties and invites non-Parties and stakeholders, with the support of the Secretariat, to strengthen national and local capacity for addressing illegal killing, taking and trade of migratory birds, inter alia, by developing training courses, translating and disseminating relevant materials and examples of best practice, sharing protocols and regulations, transferring technology, and promoting the use of online tools and other tools to address specific issues;
► Decision 12.26 on the Task Force on Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean (MIKT) directed to the Parties which are members of the MIKT:
a) Periodically use the scoreboard in Annex 1 of UNEP/CMS/Resolution 11.16 (Rev.COP12) on Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds as a national tool to self-assess progress in addressing the illegal killing of wild birds;
b) Provide, on a voluntary basis and to the extent of availability and relevance of information for the indicators, the Secretariat with the information identified in the scoreboard, for the purposes of discussion within the MIKT, to facilitate information sharing and best practice.
► Decision 12.27 on the Task Force on Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean (MIKT) directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs, decides that: Others Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to implement the Programme of Work of MIKT 2016-2020.
1. Urges Parties and Range States to enhance mutual transboundary cooperation for the conservation and management of tigers and other Asian big cat species throughout the species’ range and potential donor countries to provide or increase financial support for conservation of Asian big cat species;
Decision 12.55directed to: Parties
Parties are urged to recognize the importance of the African Carnivores Initiative in implementing CMS Resolutions and Decisions relating to the African Lion (Panthera leo), the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the Leopard (Panthera pardus) and the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) and seeking synergies, inter alia through the joint CMS-CITES Work Programme with work under CITES to implement complementary CITES Resolutions and Decision.
Decision 12.56 directed to Range States
Range States are urged to work through the African Carnivores Initiative to implement CMS Resolutions and Decisions relating to the African Lion (Panthera leo), the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the Leopard (Panthera pardus) and the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus), as a way to increase efficiency and effectiveness of their actions.
Decision 12.57 directed to Parties, IGOs and NGOs:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to provide financial and technical support to the Range State Parties of the African Lion (Panthera leo), the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the Leopard (Panthera pardus) and the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) and to the Secretariat for their work through the African Carnivores Initiative in implementing the relevant CMS Resolutions and Decisions.
Decision 12.62 directed to Parties: Parties are requested to:
a) Collaborate in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.61, paragraphs a) 1-7.´;
b) Develop and implement within communities, evidence-based strategies that reduce livestock depredation by Cheetah and African Wild Dog;
c) Develop and implement within communities, evidence-based strategies that reduce disease transmission to African Wild Dogs;
d) Promote wildlife-based income generation mechanisms that benefit both people and wildlife;
e) Provide policy environments that better support sustainable wildlife-based enterprises;
f) Ensure that legislation that protects Cheetahs and African Wild Dogs is in place and that penalties for transgression are sufficiently high to act as a deterrent;
g) Enforce protection within protected areas and maintain buffer zones and connectivity outside, in order to secure the large landscapes necessary for Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation;
h) Ensure that all large-scale infrastructure development, including fencing and roadbuilding, allows Cheetahs and African Wild Dogs to pass through safely;
i) Consider land zoning options to maintain and restore important areas for Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation outside protected areas;
j) Investigate opportunities to ensure that Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation are integrated into relevant educational curricula at national and subnational levels, including schools, universities and professional training colleges;
k) Collaborate and exchange best conservation practices regarding the preservation and restoration of African Wild Dog and Cheetah populations, and cooperate with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and other interested organizations in taking actions at the national and regional level, in particular with regard to: habitat conservation; the establishment of ecological corridors to address habitat fragmentation; the management of infectious diseases; the restoration of prey-basis; human-wildlife conflicts; and trade, including trade in captive bred specimens;
l) Assist the Secretariat, to present a summary report to the Standing Committee at its 48th and 49th meetings on the progress in implementing the Decisions.
Decision 12.63 directed to Range and Consumer States for African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus)
In support of CITES Decisions 17.235 to 17.238, Range and Consumer States of African Wild Dog are encouraged to share with Burkina Faso information about:
a) Measures implemented by range States to prevent illegal trade in African Wild Dog;
b) Trade in African Wild Dog, including levels and sources of specimens in trade;
c) Collaboration amongst Range States of African Wild Dog and exchange of best conservation practices for the preservation and restoration of the species; and collaboration with CMS, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and other interested organisations in taking actions at the national and regional level, in particular with regard to: habitat conservation, the establishment of ecological corridors, the management of infectious diseases, the restoration of prey-basis and humanwildlife conflict.
Decision 12.66 directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs, donors and other entities:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to support the Cheetah and African Wild Dog Range States and the Secretariat in their efforts to conserve and restore these species across their range; and in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.61, paragraph a), sub-paragraphs 1-7 and Decision 12.62 paragraphs b) – k).
Decision 12.68 directed to Parties, Parties are requested to:
a) Collaborate in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.67 a), paragraphs i – ix;
Decision 12.70 directed to: Parties, IGOs & NGOs, Others:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to support the African Lion Range States and the Secretariat in their efforts to conserve and restore this iconic species across the continent, taking into consideration existing landuse practices; and in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.67 a), paragraphs i. – ix.
The implementation regime
27. Ensure consistency and coordination of management and policy responses from one place to another.
29. Adopt an “adaptive management” approach (adjusting in the light of experience)*. In particular, consider any need to adapt the network’s design and/or coverage in light of shifting baselines, novel ecosystems and changes related to climate change (while guarding against spurious claims of irrecoverable change based on ulterior motives).
1. Urges CMS Focal Points and Scientific Councillors to communicate and liaise regularly with the national representatives in the IPBES to ensure that the needs for research and policy guidance related to migratory species, especially those listed under CMS, are being adequately addressed by IPBES
4. Requests the Scientific Council to participate in relevant processes of IPBES, in collaboration with the scientific advisory bodies of other MEAs as appropriate;
5. Instructs the Secretariat to maintain cooperative working relationships with IPBES, to participate as appropriate in meetings of the Platform and to report on progress to the Standing Committee, resources permitting.
1. Encourages CMS Focal Points to seek opportunities for enhancing dialogue at national and regional levels with the Focal Points of the CBD and the GEF, with a view to focusing attention on relevant prioritization and decision making processes for GEF funding at the national and regional level to the needs of migratory species and opportunities for their conservation and sustainable use;
2. Further encourages interested Parties to enhance collaboration with National Focal Points for the CBD and GEF to implement the options available under the existing GEF structure, as laid out in document UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.41, and specifically to:
a) develop further habitat-based projects under existing GEF strategies;
b) develop further species-based projects under existing GEF strategies;
c) enhance collaboration at National Focal Point level;
d) integrate relevant objectives into support for National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAP)s;
3. Further encourages Parties to include priorities for the implementation of the CMS in their NBSAPs, in particular species-based projects and capacity-building activities, in order to benefit fully from the GEF funding available for biodiversity;
4. Welcomes the CBD COP12 Decision XII/30 on the Global Environment Facility to enhance programmatic synergies among the biodiversity-related conventions and in this context requests the Standing Committee to develop elements of advice for the Global Environment Facility concerning the funding of the national priorities for the CMS;
5. Requests the Executive Secretary to provide the elements of advice as developed by the Standing Committee in time to be considered at meetings of the CBD COP so that they may be referred to the Global Environment Facility through the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity;
6. Invites the Secretariat of the GEF to participate in follow-up to the present Resolution through discussions with the CMS Secretariat, and by other appropriate means, including exploration of all opportunities to enhance GEF support to countries for activities relevant to the implementation of CMS;
7. Requests the Secretariat to engage with the GEF at all appropriate levels in pursuing the implementation of the present Resolution;
8. Requests UNEP to provide support and input as appropriate to the implementation of the present Resolution; and
9. Instructs the Secretariat to report on progress in implementing the present Resolution to meetings of the Standing Committee, and to submit proposals for further action to meetings of the Conference of Parties
Decision 12.94 directed to Parties, Parties are invited to:
a) Identify transboundary habitats of CMS-listed species, which could be considered as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), meaning an area or component of a large ecological region that straddles the boundaries of two or more countries and is within their national jurisdiction, which may encompass one or more protected areas, as well as multiple resource use areas;
b) Consider developing jointly with neighbouring Range States bi- or multilateral arrangements, including joint management plans, to improve the conservation of the habitats and species concerned;
c) Enable, in the development of such arrangements the participation of local communities and stakeholders for the purposes of benefitting wildlife and the sustainable development of the communities living within it.
Decision 12.96 directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to provide financial and technical support to implement Decisions 12.94 and 12.95
Please, also continuing in implementing the following instruments:
► The Americas Flyways Framework: A Framework For The Conservation Of Migratory Birds In The Americas attached to Resolution 12.11as Annex 2
► Decision 12.36 on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Vultures, directed to Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, that decides as follows: Parties, non-Party Range States and stakeholders are encouraged to:
a) Develop partnerships with anti-poaching initiatives and conservation groups concerned with poisoning of other taxonomic groups, including developing training courses, translating and disseminating examples of best practice, sharing protocols and regulations, transferring technology, and promoting the use of online tools to address specific issues that are relevant to the Vulture Multispecies Action Plan;
b) Contribute, with the support of the Secretariat, to the proposed workshop hosted by CMS-United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), referred to in UNEP/CMS/COP12/Doc.24.1.2 on the Conservation of Migratory Landbirds in the African-Eurasian Region (especially in relation to sustainable land use in Africa), to ensure the needs of vultures are provided for in the development of a plan (to be proposed for adoption at the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties) on the integration of biodiversity requirements, as indicated by wild birds, into the land degradation neutrality delivery at national level with a focus on West Africa (countries of the Sahel and Guinea Savannah) and potentially also North-West Africa (countries of the Maghreb), subject to the availability of resources
► The Action Plan for the Protection and Conservation of South Atlantic Whales included as Annex in CMS COP Resolution 12.17
► Decision 12.54 on the Conservation and Management of Whales and their Habitats in the South Atlantic Region, directed to Parties: Parties are requested to report on progress in implementing the Action Plan for the Protection and Conservation of South Atlantic Whales (Annex 1 to UNEP/CMS/Resolution 12.17 on Conservation and management of Whales and their Habitats in the South Atlantic Region), including monitoring and efficacy of measures taken, to the Conference of the Parties at each of its meetings.
► The Roadmap for The Conservation of The African Wild Ass, Equus Africanus adopted through CMS COP Resolution 12.18
► Decision 12.71 on the Conservation of the African Wild Ass, Equus Africanus Requests Djibouti, Egypt, and Somalia, as former Range States and invites Sudan to conduct research into whether naturally occurring extant populations of the African Wild Ass remain in their territory, and to report their findings to the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.7 Bats and Climate Change includes:
2. Cooperate on assessments of bat vulnerability to climate change at the EUROBATS range level.
5. Urges again that Contracting Parties ensure that those national authorities responsible for AEWA implementation are fully involved in the process to update national biodiversity strategies and action plans as requested by CBD Decision X/2, in order to further promote synergies between biodiversity-related treaties;