Target 9: International and regional action and cooperation between States for the conservation and effective management of migratory species fully reflects a migration systems approach, in which all States sharing responsibility for the species concerned engage in such actions in a concerted way.


Anthropogenic Impact:


►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.25 (2014) on Advancing ecological networks to address the needs of migratory species includes:


27) Ensure consistency and coordination of management and policy responses from one place to another.

29) Adopt an “adaptive management” approach (adjusting in the light of experience). In particular, consider any need to adapt the network’s design and/or coverage in light of shifting baselines, novel ecosystems and changes related to climate change (while guarding against spurious claims of irrecoverable change based on ulterior motives).

►    The Resolution 10.19 Migratory Species Conservation in the Light of Climate Change includes:

4) Urges Parties to employ adaptive management measures and the ecosystem-based approach in addressing climate change impacts, and to monitor the effectiveness of their conservation actions in order to guide ongoing efforts.


Aquatic Species:


►    The Memorandum of Understanding concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia - Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Objective 1 - National, Regional and International Collaboration and Cooperation:

1.1) Promote and enhance national, regional and international coordination and collaboration for the conservation of small cetaceans in western Africa.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 6 – Enhance national, regional and international cooperation:

6.2) Develop and implement mechanisms for effective exchange of information.

6.3) Improve coordination among government and non-government sectors and communities in the conservation of dugongs and their habitats.

6.4) Develop and implement a regional database of relevant information in relation to dugong conservation and management.

Objective 7 – Promote implementation of the MoU:

7.4) Create links and develop synergies with other relevant regional conservation conventions, MoUs and Agreements.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 5 - Enhance national, regional and international cooperation:

5.3.a) Identify and strengthen existing mechanisms for cooperation at the sub-regional level.

5.3.e) Develop networks for cooperative management of shared populations, within or across sub-regions, and, where appropriate, formalise cooperative management arrangements.

5.3 f) Cooperate where possible in the establishment of transboundary marine protected areas using ecological rather than political boundaries.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 2 - Protect, conserve and restore terrestrial and marine habitats for marine turtles:

2.1.6) Initiate and cooperate in the creation of transboundary protected marine areas, including nesting beaches and feeding and developmental areas.


Avian Species


►    The Resolution 11.14 Programme of Work on Migratory Birds and Flyways includes:

Objective 3 - Enhancing knowledge to support flyway conservation:

38) Organisation of workshops aimed at sharing best practice and lessons learnt, and to promote flyway conservation and policy options (e.g. through Global Interflyways Network).

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU) includes:

8.d) encourages Signatories to endeavour to cooperate in emergency situations requiring concerted international action, in developing appropriate emergency procedures to improve the conservation of bird of prey populations and in preparing guidelines to assist individual Signatories in addressing such situations.