Target 7: Multiple anthropogenic pressures have been reduced to levels that are not detrimental to the conservation of migratory species or to the functioning, integrity, ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.

►    The CMS COP Resolution 12.23 (Manila 2017) on Sustainable Tourism and Migratory Species, includes:

3. Requests that Parties consider developing appropriate measures and guidelines dependent on the target species, including, but not limited to:

f) Monitoring of implementation through the relevant agencies and authorities, with suitable engagements with operators to facilitate compliance;

g) Monitoring potential impacts of tourism activities to target species;

6. Encourages Parties to perform regular appraisals of enacted measures to account for any new research or relevant information, and adapt regulations as appropriate;

Vea la Hoja Informativa del Indicador separado.


►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale and Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 3 - Threat Reduction:


• Improved reporting and recording of direct take data/information.

• Management system in place, e.g. management plans, policies, regulations etc that ensure sustainability of species stocks.

• Adoption of international regulations/agreements applied to capture activities.

• Document/presentation on climate change impacts to whales and dolphins provided to Members.

• Links to international fora addressing climate change established.

• Better information on the impacts of plastics and other debris to whales and dolphins.

• Waste management guidelines promoted at all levels.

• Impacts of underwater noise pollution to whales and dolphins considered and reduced for any undertaking in the sea.

Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value:


• Case studies supported on sustainability of cultural practices in countries interested in supporting sustainability assessments.

• Relevant whale and dolphin traditional knowledge and cultural values are used and acknowledged in scientific surveys design and execution and formulation of national management policies.

Theme 8 - Whale and Dolphin Based Tourism:


• A regional database is established to assess growth of the industry.

• Industries, governments and stakeholders (NGOs, SPREP) meet in-country as required to discuss issues and actions.

• Baseline research on target populations is conducted as a basis for recommendations regarding the carrying capacity of populations to sustain numbers of tourism interactions.

• Stakeholders meetings conducted and reports developed.

• Guidelines reviewed and distributed.

• Licenses limited for management of the industry.

• National guidelines developed based on the regional guidelines and made into national regulations.

• Workshop conducted for national compliance and enforcement of guidelines/regulations.

• Regional programme to conduct national whale watching training for operators and guides/stakeholders established.

• Programme for whale watching operators to collect useful data developed and implemented.

• Educational kit available on board whale watching boats.

• Increased share of communities on from whale and dolphin watching.

• Whale and dolphin watching feasibility studies undertaken in additional members.

►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Objective 4 - Threat Reduction:


• Reports of by-catch become available for technical evaluation.

• Acceptance and use of successful by-catch mitigation techniques in the region.

• System of collecting data on by-catch and depredation from fishing operations developed and used.

• Reduction of by-catch of small cetaceans to sustainable levels.

• Sustainable principles applied to any direct take, and international regulations and agreements applied to capture activities.

• Effects of plastics, other debris and chemical pollution on small cetaceans in the western African Region documented and communicated to relevant bodies and conventions.

• Guidelines developed for proper waste management at all levels, including fishing boats.

• Map of pollution levels in the region produced, particularly sensitive areas identified.

• Effects of acoustic pollution on small cetaceans in the western African region documented and communicated to relevant bodies and conventions.

• Guidelines for noise reduction developed and communicated widely.

• Map of acoustic pollution levels in the region produced, particularly sensitive areas identified.

• Significant adverse effect of tourism on small cetaceans identified, threat mitigated, lessons learnt promoted and widely shared in the region.

• Monitoring programme for effects of small cetacean watching set up.

• Consideration of the specific effects on small cetaceans incorporated into national legislation and other processes such as EIAs. Information on potential effects made available.

• Monitoring of identified localised populations initiated.

• Consideration of the specific impacts on small cetaceans incorporated into national legislation and other processes such as EIAs. Information on potential effects made available.

• Monitoring of identified localised populations initiated.

• Lost fishing gear located and recovered.

• Marine debris regularly collected and disposed of.

• Regulations to minimise the risk of ship strikes in place and enforced.

• Other possible threats investigated.

• Emergency plans prepared and mechanism for cooperation between neighbouring countries established.

• Capacity for rescue or euthanasia operations established, code of conduct prepared.

►    The International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Argali includes:

Objective 2 - To maintain and restore intact argali habitat and migration routes:


• Pasture management plans developed.

• Measures included in pasture management plans.

• Measures included in pasture management plans.

• Herders supportive of reducing argali disturbance and displacement.

• Argali and their habitat are fully considered in EIAs/SEAs.

• Fences and other barriers to argali movements removed or adjusted.


►    The  COP Resolution 12.14 (Manila 2017) on Adverse Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Cetaceans and Other Migratory Species

19. Encourages Parties to facilitate:
• regular collaborative and coordinated temporal and geographic monitoring and assessment of local ambient noise (both of anthropogenic and biological origin);
• further understanding of the potential for sources of noise to interfere with long-range movements and migration;
• the compilation of a reference signature database, to be made publicly available, to assist in identifying the source of potentially damaging sounds;
• characterization of sources of anthropogenic noise and sound propagation to enable an assessment of the potential acoustic risk for individual species in consideration of their auditory sensitivities;
• studies on the extent and potential impact on the marine environment of high- intensity active naval sonars and seismic surveys in the marine environment; and the extent of noise inputs into the marine environment from shipping and to provide an assessment, on the basis of information to be provided by the Parties, of the impact of current practices; and
• studies reviewing the potential benefits of “noise protection areas”, where the emission of underwater noise can be controlled and minimized for the protection of cetaceans and other biota whilst recognizing that some information on the extent of the use of military sonars (e.g. frequencies used) will be classified and would not be available for use in the proposed studies or databases;

20. Recommends that Parties that have not yet done so establish national noise registries to collect and display data on noise-generating activities in the marine area to help assess exposure levels and the likely impacts on the marine environment, and that data standards are made compatible with regional noise registries, such as the ones developed by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and ACCOBAMS;

21. Urges all Parties to endeavour to develop provisions for the effective management of anthropogenic marine noise in CMS daughter agreements and other relevant bodies and Conventions;

22. Invites the Parties to strive, wherever possible, to ensure that their activities falling within the scope of this Resolution avoid harm to CMS-listed marine species and their prey;

23. Requests the Scientific Council, supported by the Joint Noise Working Group of CMS, ACCOBAMS and ASCOBANS, to continue monitoring new available information on the effects of underwater noise on marine species, as well as the effective assessment and management of this threat, and to make recommendations to Parties as appropriate;

25. Invites Parties to provide the CMS Secretariat, for transmission to the Scientific Council, with copies of relevant protocols/guidelines and provisions for the effective management of anthropogenic noise, taking security needs into account, such as those of relevant CMS daughter agreements, OSPAR, IWC, IMO, NATO and other fora, thereby avoiding duplication of work;


►    The CMS COP Resolution 12.16 (Manila 2017) on Recreational In-Water Interaction with Aquatic Mammals includes:

5. Encourages Parties to facilitate research allowing an assessment of the long-term effects and biological significance of disturbances, noting that this requires information on the biology, behaviour and ecology of the species, adequate historical data, and suitable modelling techniques that use behavioural observation collected over shorter time frames to predict potential long-term effects on populations, and use these predictions to inform management decisions; and

6. Strongly encourages Parties to review any measures periodically to enable any impacts detected through research and monitoring of the populations to be taken into account as necessary.