Target 7: Multiple anthropogenic pressures have been reduced to levels that are not detrimental to the conservation of migratory species or to the functioning, integrity, ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.


Anthropogenic Impact

►    The CMS COP Resolution 12.23 on Sustainable Tourism and Migratory Species, includes:

1. Urges Parties to adopt, as they consider appropriate measures such as national action plans, regulations and codes of conduct, binding protocols or additional legal frameworks and legislation, aiming to ensure tourism activities do not negatively affect species anywhere within their migratory range;

2. Recommends that Parties in promoting tourism or recreational activities involving wildlife interaction, take into account the following basic philosophies:

a) Tourism activities should not inhibit the natural behaviour and activity of migratory species nor adversely affect their associated habitat;

b) The activities should not have significant negative impact on the long-term survival of species populations;

 c) Tourism activities should create sustainable social and economic benefits within local communities;

d) Revenues generated from the activity should be able to provide resources for the conservation of the species or group of species subject to tourism, including the protection of their habitat, and sustaining best practices;

e) Tourism involving wildlife should take into account the safety of observers and wildlife as well as risk to human health;

 3. Requests that Parties consider developing appropriate measures and guidelines dependent on the target species, including, but not limited to:

 a) Accreditation of operators, provisions of training and a clear code of conduct;

b) Allowable types of interactions;

c) Level of activity, including aspects such as maximum interaction hours per day, maximum observation time per interaction, or number of individuals/vehicles within designated interaction zones or distances;

d) Appropriate equipment or technologies to be used with limits on any that could cause undue disturbance to target species;

e) Consider seasonal or life stage-specific regulations or exclusions (e.g. during the mating season);

 f) Monitoring of implementation through the relevant agencies and authorities, with suitable engagements with operators to facilitate compliance;

g) Monitoring potential impacts of tourism activities to target species;

4 Recommends that the same measures are made applicable to non-dedicated or opportunistic interactions;

5. Encourages Parties to apply the Precautionary Principle where there is a lack of information concerning the effects of interactions brought about by tourism on a species;

►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.29 (2014) on Sustainable boat-based marine wildlife watching includes:

1) Urges Parties, in whose areas of jurisdiction commercial operations involving marine boat-based wildlife watching take place, to adopt appropriate measures, such as national guidelines, codes of conduct, and if necessary, national legislation, binding regulations or other regulatory tools, to promote ecologically sustainable wildlife watching;

4) Recommends further that, insofar as they are applicable, measures adopted by the Parties also cover opportunistic wildlife watching during other commercial and private boat-based activities; and

6) Also strongly encourages Parties to review these measures periodically to enable any impacts detected through research and monitoring of the populations to be taken into account as necessary.

►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.29 (Rev. COP12) on Sustainable Boat-based Marine Wildlife Watching includes:

1 Urges Parties, in whose areas of jurisdiction commercial operations involving marine boat-based wildlife watching take place, to adopt appropriate measures, such as national guidelines, codes of conduct, and if necessary, national legislation, binding regulations or other regulatory tools, to promote ecologically sustainable wildlife watching;

3. Recommends that Parties in developing such measures take into account the following guiding principles based on which the boat-based wildlife watching activities should be conducted:

 a) The activities should not have negative effects on the long-term survival of populations and habitats; and

b) The activities should have minimal impact on the behaviour of watched and associated animals;

44. Further recommends that Parties consider the measures as appropriate and depending on the target species in particular with respect to the need for provisions concerning:

a) Licensing or permitting of operators, including training, reporting and compliance requirements;

b) Level of activity, including the possible setting of daily, seasonal and/or geographical exclusion areas and limitations on the number of vessels;

 c) Method of approach, including provisions on distance to be maintained and direction and speed of vessels, as well as careful and sensitive navigation in the vicinity of animals; and

d) Interaction, including prohibition of operators’ behaviours that disturb animals or provoke interactions, unless there is good scientific evidence that this will not have negative consequences, or negatively impact the habitat;

5. Recommends further that, insofar as they are applicable, measures adopted by the Parties also cover opportunistic wildlife watching during other commercial and private boat-based activities;

6. Also recommends that when vessel-based and in-water activities, such as swimming or diving with the animals, occur concurrently, specific measures be included to ensure the safety of marine wildlife and human participants

7. Strongly encourages Parties to provide that the measures take into account the size and status of any wildlife watching programme and the specific needs of all affected species;

8. Also strongly encourages Parties to review these measures periodically to enable any impacts detected through research and monitoring of the populations to be taken into account as necessary;


►   Decisions 12.78-12.80 on Sustainable Boat-Based Marine Wildlife Watching include Decision 12.78 directed to Parties:  Parties are requested to provide the Secretariat with copies of the relevant documents for any measures they have adopted as described in paragraph 1 of UNEP/CMS/Resolution 11.29 (Rev.COP12) on Sustainable Boat-Based Marine Wildlife Watching. 


►    The CMS Resoluton 12.20 (Manila, 2017) on Management of Marine Debris includes:

4.            Encourages Parties to identify coastal and oceanic locations where marine debris aggregates to identify any potential areas of concern;

5.            Further encourages Parties to work collaboratively with regional neighbours and other states to identify and address the sources and impacts of marine debris on migratory species, acknowledging that marine debris is not constrained by sovereign borders;

6.            Requests that Parties provide – if available – information on the amounts, impacts and sources of marine debris in waters within their jurisdiction on marine species listed on Appendix I and II of the Convention in their National Reports;

7.            Encourages Parties to establish or continue monitoring programmes, using standardized methodologies, that give particular regard to:

a)            the prevalence of all the types of debris that may, or are known to, have impacts on migratory species;

b)            sources and pathways of these types of debris;

c)            geographic distribution of these types of debris and identification of hot spot areas;

d)            impacts on migratory species, within and between regions;

e)            identification of the most threatened species or most vulnerable populations in view of densities and seasonal distribution of marine debris;

f)             the presence and effects of micro- and nanoscale plastics, including sub-lethal effects;

g)            population level effects on and welfare of migratory species as appropriate to national circumstances;


12.          Calls upon Parties and invites other stakeholders to address the issue of abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), by following the strategies set out under the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries;


13.          Further encourages Parties and invites other stakeholders to work towards achieving Goal B of the Global Framework for Prevention and Management of Marine Debris, agreed as part of the Honolulu Strategy: “Reduced amount and impact of sea-based sources of marine debris, including solid waste; lost cargo; abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG); and abandoned vessels, introduced into the sea”;


14.          Invites Parties to MARPOL Annex V to review and improve, if required, provisions regarding applicability to fishing vessels and deliberate abandonment of fish aggregating devices (FADs) and other types of fishing gear that contain plastics;


15.          Encourages Parties to promote measures such as the Clean Shipping Index and marine environmental awareness courses among shipping operators;


16.          Calls upon Parties to require of their shipping operator’s adherence to national obligations also when in areas beyond national jurisdiction;


28.          Requests Parties to cooperate regionally and globally on clean-up actions of hotspots of marine debris, with particular attention given to areas where migratory species are at higher risk, and to follow best available techniques and responsible environmental practices for the removal and sound disposal of debris


34.          Encourages Parties that have not yet done so to join other relevant Conventions such as MARPOL Annex V and the London Protocol, to join Protocols to Regional Seas Conventions on Pollution from Land Based Sources, and to include the prevention and management of marine debris in relevant national legislation;


35.          Further encourages the Parties to engage, as appropriate, with other global marine initiatives such as the United Nations Environment Programme’s Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA-Marine), the Regional Seas Programmes, the Global Partnership on Marine Litter (GPML), the Global Partnership on Waste Management (GPWM) and the Global Ghost Gear Initiative;


►The CMS COP Resolution 12.09 (Manila, 2017) on the Establishment of a Review Mechanism and National Legislation Programme

1. Decides to establish a review mechanism to facilitate compliance with the obligations set out in Articles III.4, III.5, III.7, and VI.2 of the Convention (“implementation matters”);


2. Decides also to establish a National Legislation Programme to support strengthening the implementation of the Convention through national legislation and support Parties, if needed, in developing or improving relevant national legislation.


►    The  COP Resolution 12.14 (Manila 2017) on Adverse Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Cetaceans and Other Migratory Species


3. Urges Parties and invites non-Parties that exercise jurisdiction over any part of the range of marine species listed on the appendices of CMS, or over flag vessels that are engaged within or beyond national jurisdictional limits, to take special care and, where appropriate and practical, to endeavour to control the impact of anthropogenic marine noise pollution in habitats of vulnerable species and in areas where marine species that are vulnerable to the impact of anthropogenic marine noise may be concentrated, to undertake relevant environmental assessments on the introduction of activities that may lead to noise associated risks for CMS-listed marine species and their prey


4. Strongly urges Parties to prevent adverse effects on CMS-listed marine species and their prey by restricting the emission of underwater noise; and where noise cannot be avoided, further urges Parties to develop an appropriate regulatory framework or implement relevant measures to ensure a reduction or mitigation of anthropogenic marine noise;


5. Calls on Parties and invites non-Parties to adopt whenever possible mitigation measures on the use of high intensity active naval sonars until a transparent assessment of their environmental impact on marine mammals, fish and other marine life has been completed and as far as possible aim to prevent impacts from the use of such sonars, especially in areas known or suspected to be important habitat to species particularly sensitive to active sonars (e.g. beaked whales) and in particular where risks to marine species cannot be excluded, taking account of existing national measures and related research in this field;


6. Urges Parties to ensure that Environmental Impact Assessments take full account of the effects of activities on CMS-listed marine species and their prey and consider a more holistic ecological approach at a strategic planning stage;


7. Endorses the “CMS Family Guidelines on Environmental Impact Assessments for Marine Noise-generating Activities” attached as Annex and welcomes the Technical Support Information contained in UNEP/CMS/COP12/Inf.112


13. Welcomes the efforts of the private sector and other stakeholders to reduce their environmental impact and strongly encourages them to continue making this a priority;


14. Recommends that Parties, the private sector and other stakeholders apply Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP) including, where appropriate, clean technology, in their efforts to reduce or mitigate marine noise pollution;


 15. Further recommends that Parties, the private sector and other stakeholders use, as appropriate, noise reduction techniques for offshore activities such as: air-filled coffer dams, bubble curtains or hydro-sound dampers, or different foundation types (such as floating platforms, gravity foundations or pile drilling instead of pile driving);


16. Stresses the need of Parties to consult with any stakeholder conducting activities known to produce anthropogenic marine noise with the potential to cause adverse effects on CMS listed marine species and their prey, such as the oil and gas industry, shoreline developers, offshore extractors, marine renewable energy companies, other industrial activities and oceanographic and geophysical researchers recommending, how best practice of avoidance, diminution or mitigation of risk should be implemented. This also applies to military authorities to the extent that this is possible without endangering national security interests. In any case of doubt the precautionary approach should be applied;


 17. Encourages Parties to integrate the issue of anthropogenic noise into the management plans of marine protected areas (MPAs) where appropriate, in accordance with international law, including UNCLOS;


18. Invites the private sector to assist in developing mitigation measures and/or alternative techniques and technologies for coastal, offshore and maritime activities in order to minimize anthropogenic noise pollution of the marine environment to the highest extent possible;


24. Requests the Secretariat and calls upon Parties to contribute to the work of the IMO MEPC on noise from commercial shipping;


►    The CMS COP Resolution 12.16 on Recreational In-Water Interaction with Aquatic Mammals includes:

1. Urges Parties, in whose areas of jurisdiction recreational in-water interactions with aquatic mammals take place, to adopt appropriate measures, such as national guidelines, codes of conduct, and if necessary, national legislation, binding regulations or other regulatory tools, to address the consequences of, and carefully regulate, all such activities;

2. Encourages Parties to ensure that these activities do not have negative effects on the longterm survival of populations and habitats and have minimal impact on the behaviour of the exposed animals;

3. Recommends that, insofar as they are applicable, measures adopted by the Parties also cover opportunistic in-water encounters with aquatic mammals;

4. Also recommends that when vessel-based and in-water activities occur concurrently, measures adopted by the Parties ensure the safety of marine wildlife and human participants;


►   Decision 12.50 on Recreational in-water Interaction with Aquatic Mammals directed toParties: Parties are requested to provide the Secretariat with copies of the relevant documents for any measures as described in paragraph 1 of UNEP/CMS/Resolution 12.16 on Recreational In-Water Interaction with Aquatic Mammals they have adopted regarding recreational in-water interactions with aquatic mammals or other CMS-listed species. 


►    The ASCOBANS Resolution 7.4 on Impacts of chemical pollution on small cetaceans includes:

1) Calls upon Parties to continue to support ongoing research programmes related to effects of chemical contaminants on small cetaceans;

3) Urges Parties to implement fully the provisions and decisions of organizations and treaties addressing the introduction of chemical waste into the marine environment, including OSPAR, HELCOM, the European Union and the IMO;

4) Invites Parties to inform the Advisory Committee about relevant activities in order to facilitate cooperation and exchange information and best practice; and

5) Strongly encourages the creation of a web-accessed database for marine mammal strandings and necropsy data in the ASCOBANS region, as foreseen in the Agreement’s Conservation and Management Plan; and calls upon Parties to provide funding for the creation and long-term support of such a database.


►    The ASCOBANS Resolution 6.2 on adverse effects of underwater noise on marine mammals during offshore construction activities for renewable energy production includes:

2) Requests Parties and Range States that have not yet done so to introduce precautionary guidance on measures and procedures for all activities surrounding the development of renewable energy production in order to minimise risks to populations, and mitigate possible effects to small cetaceans following current best practice;

3) Recommends that these guidelines should include where possible and relevant:

3a) Appropriate siting of devices to minimise impacts on small cetaceans;

3b) Measures for avoiding construction activities with high underwater noise source levels during the periods of the year with the highest densities of small cetaceans, and in so doing limiting the number of animals exposed, if potentially significant adverse effects on small cetaceans cannot be avoided by other measures;

3c) Measures for avoiding construction activities with high underwater noise source levels when small cetaceans are present in the vicinity of the construction site;

3d) Measures for alerting small cetaceans to the onset of potentially harmful construction noise; and

3e) Technical measures for reducing the sound emission during construction works, if potentially significant adverse effects on small cetaceans cannot be avoided by other measures.

4) Recommends further that Parties and Range States:

4a) Continue to develop effective mitigation measures, guidelines and technological adaptations to minimise any potentially significant adverse effects on small cetaceans due to offshore construction in the framework of marine renewable energy production, including disturbance effects and physical damage;

4b) Develop and implement procedures to assess the effectiveness of any guidelines or management measures introduced;

4c) Continue to conduct research into the effects on small cetaceans of marine renewable energy production, including on physical and behavioural effects, and at the individual and population level; and actively exchange information on methods and results;

4d) Continue to conduct research into the development of acoustic warning devices for small cetaceans; and

4e) Set in place adaptive management systems so that guidance can be regularly reviewed and updated in this little known but rapidly developing marine industry.


►    The ASCOBANS Mitigation Guidance for intense noise generating activities in the ASCOBANS region include:

4) Mitigation measures should be more precautionary/restrictive for activities for which scientific information is limited or for situations where uncertainties are high.

5) In cases where the applicant is already required to adopt a mitigation policy, the more restrictive rules should apply.

7) Protocols and procedures should be standardised and the equipment necessary for monitoring defined in the permit request. (The permit could eventually also include additional monitoring and reporting requests).

12) Visual observations and acoustic monitoring data must be accurately collected during activities carried out under a permit.

Further Note:

►    ECS/ASCOBANS Workshop on offshore windfarms and marine mammals: advice in proceedings

►    ECS/ACCOBAMS/ASCOBANS Workshop on chemical pollution and marine mammals: advice in proceedings


►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.15 (Rev.COP12)adopted the Guidelines to Prevent Risk of Poisoning to Migratory Birds  that include:

1) Substitute (remove and replace) insecticides with a high risk to birds with safe alternatives, and inclusion of criteria in the Rotterdam Convention to reduce risks of imports toxic to birds, promotion of Integrated Pest Management, and identification of areas of significant risk of poisoning of migratory birds and mitigation of impacts through working with stakeholders;

2) Restrict/ban the use of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in open field agriculture (excluding best practice use for invasive species management); use best practice for the treatment of rodent irruptions minimising use of second-generation anticoagulants; and stop permanent baiting, with preventive rodent measures used instead;

3) Prohibit the use of poison-baits for predator control for livestock protection and game management (excluding best practice use for invasive species management) and creation or improvement of enforcement legislation, through deterrent mechanisms and infringement penalties, and restriction of access to highly toxic substances, with human-wildlife conflict resolved via multi-stakeholder forums;

4) Prohibit the use of veterinary diclofenac for the treatment of livestock and substitute with readily available safe alternatives, such as meloxicam, with mandatory safety-testing of all new veterinary pharmaceuticals for risks to scavenging birds before market authorization is granted;

5) Phase-out the use of lead ammunition across all habitats (wetland and terrestrial) with non-toxic alternatives within the next three years with Parties reporting to Conference of the Parties (CoP12) in 2017, working with stakeholders on implementation; promotion of leadership from ammunition-users on safe alternatives, and remediation of lead-polluted sites where appropriate; and

6) Phase-out the use of lead fishing weights in areas where migratory birds have been shown to be particularly at risk i.e. freshwater habitats, (excluding fishing weights used in coastal areas where there are significant knowledge gaps and further research needed) with non-toxic alternatives, within the next three years with Parties reporting to the Conference of the Parties (CoP12) in 2017, working with all stakeholders on implementation; and promotion of leadership from fishers on safe alternatives.


►     The COP Resolution 12.21 Climate Change and Migratory Speciesincludes:

Climate change mitigation, human adaptation, and land use planning:

•Identify, evaluate, prioritize and reduce the additional impacts on migratory species resulting from changes in human behavior due to climate change (the so-called “tertiary effects”).

• Develop and/or revise environmental sensitivity and zoning maps, to include critical and important sites for migratory species, as an essential tool for sustainable land use planning and management and adaptation projects.

 • Use the environmental sensitivity and zoning maps to inform the selection of sites for climate change mitigation projects, such as renewable energy projects.

•Develop general guidelines for mitigation and human adaptation projects to ensure that they are not harmful to migratory species.

•Ensure that where impacts on migratory species are significant, renewable energy and other climate change mitigation or adaptation structures are operated in ways that eliminate or minimize negative effects on migratory species (for example, including short-term shutdowns or higher turbine cut-in speeds, with regard to wind farms).

• Ensure that an environmental impact assessment is conducted prior to undertaking major adaptation and mitigation projects, as well as exploration and production projects, taking into account impacts on migratory species.

• Make the monitoring of environmental impacts a standard requirement for major climate change mitigation and adaptation projects, exploration and production projects and for land use planning.


►   The Resolution 11.27 (Rev. COP12) Renewable Energy and Migratory Species includes:

3. Urges Parties to implement, as appropriate, the following priorities in their development of renewable energy technologies:

a) wind energy: undertake careful physical planning with special attention to the mortality of birds (in particular of species that are long-lived and have low fecundity) and bats resulting from collisions with wind turbines and the increased mortality risk to cetaceans from permanently reduced auditory functions, and consider means of reducing disturbance and displacement effects on relevant species, including deploying measures such as ‘shutdown on demand’ as appropriate;

b) solar energy: avoid protected areas so as to limit further the impacts of deploying solar power plants; undertake careful planning to reduce disturbance and displacement effects on relevant species, as well as to minimize the risks of solar flux and trauma related injuries which could be a consequence of a number of solar energy technologies;

c) ocean energy: give attention to possible impacts on migratory species of increased noise and electromagnetic field disturbance especially during construction work in coastal habitats, and injury;

d) hydro-power: undertake measures to reduce or mitigate known serious impacts on the movements of migratory aquatic species, such as through the installation of measures such as fish passageways; and

e) geo-energy: avoid habitat loss, disturbance and barrier effects in order to continue to keep the overall environmental impacts at their current low level.


►    Decisions 12.81-12.82 on the Support to the Energy Task Force include Decision 12.81 directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs, and other Stakeholders from the energy sectors:

Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders from the energy sector are encouraged to consider contributing to the implementation of the Energy Task Force Work Plan, including through the provision of financial and technical assistance to support the on-going operations of the Energy Task Force.


►    The CMS COP Resolution 10.11 (2011) on Power lines and migratory birds includes:

2) Urges Parties and encourages non-Parties to implement these Guidelines as applicable and to:

2.2) Consult regularly relevant stakeholders, including government agencies, scientific bodies, non-governmental organizations and the energy sector, in order to monitor jointly the impacts of power lines on birds and to agree on a common policy of action;

2.3) Establish a baseline of bird distribution, population sizes, migrations and movements, including those between breeding, resting and feeding areas, as early as possible in the planning of any power line project, over a period of at least one year, and with particular emphasis on those species known to be vulnerable to electrocution or collision and if such studies identify any risks, to make every effort to ensure these are avoided;

2.4) Design the location, route and direction of power lines on the basis of national zoning maps and avoid, wherever possible, construction along major migration flyways and in habitats of conservation importance, such as Important Bird Areas, protected areas, Ramsar sites, the East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, the West/Central Asian Site Network for Siberian Crane and other waterbirds and other critical sites as identified by the Critical Site Network (CSN) Tool for the African-Eurasian region.

2.5) Identify those sections of existing power lines that are causing relatively high levels of bird injury and/or mortality due to electrocution and/or collision, and modify these as a matter of priority by applying the techniques recommended by the Guidelines in UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30; and

2.6) Regularly monitor and evaluate the impact of power lines on bird populations at the national scale, as well as the effectiveness of mitigation measures put in place to minimize the impact of power lines on bird populations.


Aquatic Species

For specific fisheries related threats, see Target 6.


►    The Memorandum of Understanding concerning conservation measures for marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa: Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality

1.1) Identify and document the anthropogenic threats to marine turtle populations and habitats.

1.2) Determine and implement the best practices to minimize anthropogenic threats to marine turtle populations and their habitats.

1.5) Minimize the effects of marine extractive industries on marine turtles and their habitats.

1.6) Develop nesting beach management programs to maximize hatchling recruitment.

1.8) Prohibit the direct harvest (capture or killing) of, and domestic trade in, marine turtles, their eggs, parts or products, whilst allowing exceptions for traditional harvest by communities within each jurisdiction provided that: such harvest does not undermine efforts to protect, conserve and recover marine turtle populations and their habitats; and the marine turtle populations in question are able to sustain the harvest.

Objective 2 - Protect, conserve and restore terrestrial and marine habitats for marine turtles:

2.1.4) Conduct assessments of the environmental impact of marine and coastal development and other human activities on marine turtles and their habitats.

Objective 4 - Increase public awareness to threats facing marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities:

4.1.7) Consider the use of local taboos to better protect marine turtles by coastal communities.


►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale and Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 3 - Threat Reduction:

Objective 1 - Minimize the impacts of the major hazards listed below on whale and dolphin populations in the Pacific Islands region:

3.3) Take actions to ensure a favourable conservation status of affected whale and dolphin species.

3.4) Ensure compliance with all relevant international regulations and conventions/agreements.

3.5) Facilitate the collation and dissemination of current knowledge of the impacts of climate change on cetaceans and their habitats.

3.7) Analyse information/impacts of climate change.

3.8) Encourage improved waste management at community and national levels (including fishing operations) to reduce plastics and other debris in the marine environment.

3.9) Reduce amount of discarded fishing gear in the ocean.

3.10) Disseminate waste management guidelines to relevant Departments/Agencies for promotion.

3.11) Consider and reduce impacts of underwater noise pollution from any source that could affect whales and dolphins.

Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value:

6.9) Assess the sustainability of cultural practices involving whales and dolphins that may represent a threat to whales and dolphins (e.g. Solomon Islands dolphin drive).

Theme 8 - Whale and Dolphin Based Tourism:

Objective 1 - Ensure the development of whale and dolphin tourism is sustainable throughout the Pacific Islands Region:

Objective 2 - Ensure best practice management of whales and dolphins tourism in the PIR:

Objective 3 - Whale and dolphin based tourism watching is conducted responsibly with minimum impact and maximum education and economic values.


►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Objective 4 - Threat Reduction:

4.1) To develop, test and disseminate effective mitigation techniques and gear that reduce by-catch to sustainable levels.

4.3) Promote reduction and ultimate elimination of chemical pollution or debris that affect small cetaceans.

4.4) Promote reduction and elimination of acoustic pollution.

4.5) Identify and mitigate any significant impact of tourism on small cetaceans.

4.6) Ensure all littoral developments and activities take into account effects on small cetacean populations and the environment.

4.7) Identify and mitigate other potential threats to small cetaceans, including ship strikes, entanglement in lost fishing gear and diseases.

4.8) Development and implementation of emergency measures for small cetaceans in exceptionally unfavourable or endangering conditions.

Objective 8 - Tourism Based on Small Cetaceans:

8.1) Ensure best practice management and maximise educational and economic values of tourism based on small cetaceans in the western African region.


►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.4.a) Develop and use gear, devices and techniques to minimise incidental capture of marine turtles in fisheries, such as devices that effectively allow the escape of marine turtles, and spatial and seasonal closures.

1.4.d) Liaise and coordinate with fisheries industries and fisheries management organisations to develop and implement incidental capture mitigation mechanisms in national waters and on the high seas.

1.4.f) Develop and implement net retention and recycling schemes to minimise the disposal of fishing gear at sea and on beaches.

1.4.g) Provide and ensure the use of port facilities for the disposal of ship-borne waste.

1.5.a) Enact, where not already in place, legislation to prohibit direct harvest and domestic trade.

1.6.b) Reduce the mortality of eggs and hatchlings to maximise hatchling recruitment and survival, preferably using conservation techniques that emphasize natural processes wherever possible

1.6.c) Minimise the mortality of eggs, hatchlings and nesting female turtles caused by feral and domestic animals


►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 1 – Reduce direct and indirect causes of dugong mortality:

1.1) Identify, assess and evaluate the threats to dugong populations and develop appropriate measures to address these threats.

1.3) Reduce to the greatest extent practicable the incidental mortality of dugongs arising from other anthropogenic activities.

1.4) Reduce to the greatest extent practicable the illegal take of dugong.

1.5) Ensure that subsistence and customary use of dugong is sustainable in areas where it is permitted.

Objective 2 – Improve our understanding of dugong through research and monitoring:

2.3) Collect and analyse data that supports the identification of sources of mortality, the mitigation of threats and improved approaches to conservation practices.


Avian Species


►    The CMS COP 12.10 (Manila 2017) on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Vultures includes:

2. Urges Parties and encourages non-Party Range States, in implementing the Vulture MsAP, to urgently address:

a) the problem of poisoning of vultures, particularly by poison baits, the veterinary use of diclofenac and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) toxic to vultures and the use of lead ammunition, in conjunction with the CMS Preventing Poisoning Working Group and in line with the Guidelines to Prevent Poisoning of Migratory Birds adopted by Resolution 11.15, ensuring that national conservation legislation is properly implemented and enforced;

b) the impact of electrocution and collisions associated with energy infrastructure in conjunction with the CMS Energy Task Force in line with Resolution 11.27; and,

c) the illegal killing, taking and trade in vultures and their body parts in line with Resolution 11.16;


►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU) includes:

Objective 3 - General Conservation Measures:

8.c) To this end, the Signatories will endeavour to:investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by human activities or from other causes and will endeavour to implement remedial and preventative measures, including inter alia habitat rehabilitation and habitat restoration, and compensatory measures for loss of habitat.

►    The Central Asian Flyways Action Plan for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their habitats (CAF) includes:

Objective 4 - Management of Human Activities:

4.3.1) Range States shall, as far as possible, undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment, adopting international best practice methodologies, of human activities that could have impact on migratory waterbird populations and their habitats.

4.3.2) Range States shall assess the impact of proposed projects which are likely to lead to conflicts between populations listed in Table 2 that are in the areas referred to in section 3.2 and human interests, and shall make the results of the assessment publicly available.

4.3.3) Range States shall, as far as possible, promote high environmental standards in the planning and construction of structures to minimize their impact on populations listed in Table 2 through national and provincial/state legislation. They should consider steps to minimize the impact of structures already in existence where it becomes evident that they constitute a negative impact for the populations concerned.

►    The Action Plan for the conservation of southern South American migratory grassland bird species and their habitats includes:

Objective 4 - Population and habitat monitoring:

4.4) Promote/conduct epidemiological studies and on the impact of human activities on bird populations.


Terrestrial Species


►    The Programme of Work of the Central Asian Mammals Initiative (CAMI POW) includes:

Objective 1 - To address key threats and issues currently not (sufficiently) covered by existing work programmes and stakeholders:

1.2.2) Review and modify existing grazing norms (both legal and customary) based on e.g. carrying capacity and wildlife habitat hotspots.

1.2.8) Where possible, minimize grazing threats from migratory routes.

Objective 2 - To guide planning and implementation of prioritized conservation actions at a regional scale:

2.2.1) Address impacts from linear Infrastructure and maintain landscape permeability specifically:

2.2.1.b) Mitigate impact of existing fences through removal or modification to wildlife friendly designs;

2.2.1.d) Explore issues/options related to increasing border fence permeability;

2.2.1.e) Map roads of existing or predicted high volume (>1,000 vehicles/day);

2.2.1.f) Develop mitigation strategies;

2.2.1.g) Map no go areas and suitable areas for alignment to guide planners; and

2.2.1.h) Incorporate landscape permeability concepts for regional-scale development of roads and railways.


►    The Saiga-Medium-Term International Work Programme (for the Saiga Antelope (2016-2020) includes:

Objective 4 - Work with local people:

4.4) Promote sustainable rangeland use to enable the cohabitation of people, livestock and saigas.

Objective 6 - Habitat and environmental factors:

6.1) Remove barriers impeding the movement of saiga antelopes or, if not possible, alter fences, roads, railways and other linear infrastructure to allow saigas to pass freely, in line with CMS Guidelines on Mitigating the Impact of Linear Infrastructure and Related Disturbance on Mammals in Central Asia.

6.2) Support appropriate authorities and developers (industry, government) to ensure that all infrastructural and other development likely to impact saigas has a full impact assessment prior to implementation (including EIA and SEA), and that steps are taken to address any impacts on saigas, following best practice and a mitigation hierarchy (avoid, minimise, restore, offset), including producing saiga-specific guidance documents, following the internationally recognized standards IFC1 and IFC6.


►    The International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Argali includes:

Objective 2 - To maintain and restore intact argali habitat and migration routes:

2.1) Pastures are sustainably managed and availability and quality for argali have improved:

2.1.1) Develop pasture management plans in key sites to maintain and restore intact rangelands.

2.1.2) Involve local people living on and using argali habitat to improve land management and cohabitation of argali, livestock and people, including through Community Conservation Incentive Agreements.

2.1.3) Monitor the effects of climate change on argali habitat and integrate mitigation measures and climate change adaptation scenarios into habitat/site management.

2.1.4) Increase the effectiveness of protected area networks and hunting concessions for argali (including trans boundary), their coverage and interconnectivity.

2.1.5) Provide adequate transport, equipment, and training to protected areas and rangers.

2.4) Negative impacts of mining and infrastructure development are minimized and mitigated:

2.4.1) Ensure Environmental Impact Assessments / Strategic Environmental Assessments are conducted rigorously and transparently.

2.4.2) Ensure compliance with International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standard 6 to reduce the negative impact on biodiversity of infrastructure developments and apply appropriate suitable mitigation measures.

2.4.3) Improve connectivity by removing barriers between populations and migration corridors, and if removal is not possible, by adjusting infrastructure (e.g. fences).



►    The Resolution 12.07 The Role of Ecological Networks in the Conservation of Migratory Species, includes:

10. Further invites Parties and other States as well as relevant international fora, as appropriate, to explore the applicability of ecological networks to marine migratory species, especially those that are under pressure from human activities such as over exploitation, oil and gas exploration/exploitation, fisheries and coastal development;


►    The  CMS COP Resolution 11.23 (Rev. COP12) on Conservation Implications of Animal Culture and Social Complexity includes:

1.                   Also encourages Parties and other stakeholders to assess anthropogenic threats to socially complex mammalian species on the basis of evidence of interactions of those threats with social structure and culture;


►    CMS Family Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines for marine noise-generating activities  - under development, to be presented for adoption to ASCOBANS MOP8, ACCOBAMS MOP6 and CMS COP12.


►    Resolution on Dolphin swim-with programmes (see report of Scientific Council 1st Sessional Committee meeting 2016).


►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on ocean energy (see AC22 report).


►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on Impacts of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) (see AC22 report).


►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on Addressing the threat from underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) (see AC22 report).


►    ASCOBANS MOP8 Resolution on Managing cumulative anthropogenic impacts in the marine environment (see AC22 Report).



The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.4 Wind Turbines and Bat Populations includes:

1. Take into account the impacts that onshore and offshore wind turbines have on bat populations on different geographical scales.

2. Raise awareness and take into account that some habitats and areas, where a negative impact on bats is predicted, may not be suitable for the operation of wind turbines

3. Exclude wind energy developments from areas with a special focus on bat protection

6. Ensure that appropriate impact assessments are undertaken pre- and postconstruction, including mortality rate assessments regardless of the results of the preconstruction assessment.

12. Develop and ensure implementation of national guidance following EUROBATS Publication Series No. 6.

13. Avoid or reduce bat mortality with measures such as blade feathering, higher turbine cut-in wind speeds and shutting down turbines temporarily.

14. Ensure that proper mitigation measures are prescribed during the approval procedure and are being implemented and are effective.

7. Ensure that post-construction monitoring and mitigation measures continue as long as needed to guarantee effectiveness.

8. Ensure that measures to avoid and mitigate impacts on bats are supervised by authorities.

10. Encourage developers of wind energy projects and responsible authorities to make raw data from impact assessment and post-construction monitoring available for independent analysis.

11. Encourage developers of wind energy projects and responsible authorities to make reports from impact assessments and post-construction monitoring publicly available.


The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.6 Bats and Light Pollution includes:

1. Take into account that artificial light in general has a negative impact on bats and should be avoided wherever and whenever possible.

2. Work to ensure that planning of artificial lighting projects is undertaken in compliance with national legislation regarding bat protection and conservation by implementing appropriate avoidance, mitigation and compensation for habitat losses.

3. Ensure that the impacts of artificial light on bats are included in impact assessment procedures.

4. Work to resolve any conflict between artificial light and bats.

6. Encourage developers of lighting concepts or responsible authorities to make raw data from impact assessments and post-installation/development monitoring available for independent analysis.

7. Encourage developers of lighting concepts or responsible authorities to make reports of impact assessments and post-installation/development monitoring available for the public.


The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.7 Bats and Climate Change includes:

5. Ensure that climate change impact on bats is taken into account in land-use planning and impact assessment in future projects evaluation.


The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.9 Bats, Insulation and Lining Materials includes:

1. Ensure that insulation projects are undertaken in compliance with national legislation regarding bat protection and conservation by implementing appropriate pre-insulation surveys and assessments, mitigation and compensation to avoid roost loss and bat mortality.

2. Put in place mechanisms for post-insulation monitoring to ensure mitigation and compensation has been implemented, and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures.

5. Resolve any possible conflict between insulation regulations and bat conservation.

6. Include bats in the impact assessment of insulation programs at a strategic level.



The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.13 Insect Decline as a Threat to Bat Populations in Europe includes:

2. Avoid the use of pesticides, particularly those problematic for bats and their food resources, in and around areas which are important for bat conservation.

3. Promote action programmes for the conservation of insects and restoration of their habitats in consideration of their vulnerability, aiming at the known causes of insect decline

4. Consider bats in pesticide risk assessments.

5. In general, take a precautionary approach with respect to the use of pesticides.