Target 6: Fisheries and hunting have no significant direct or indirect adverse impacts on migratory species, their habitats or their migration routes, and impacts of fisheries and hunting are within safe ecological limits.
► The CMS COP Resolution 12.22 on Bycatch (Manila 2017 )includes:
2. Further notes and encourages Parties to implement the best practice approach and procedures outlined in the 1999 FAO International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (IPOA-Seabirds) and its related Best Practices Technical Guidelines, the 1999 FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks), the 2009 FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations and the 2011 FAO International Guidelines on Bycatch Management and Reduction of Discards, and to develop and implement national plans of action as required by the IPOAs;
Participation in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations
7. Requests those Parties that are also Parties to regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) to highlight there the serious problems of incidental mortality of migratory species listed in Appendices I and II, with a view to the adoption of mitigating measures;
8. Calls on Parties, working through RFMOs and regional fisheries management agreements, as appropriate, to:
a) raise the serious and ongoing problem of bycatch of migratory species, especially as it refers to seabirds, fishes, marine turtles and marine mammals, with a view to improving mitigation measures for the reduction of bycatch;
b) compile information and take action regarding fishing activities in waters under their jurisdiction, or by flagged fishing vessels under their jurisdiction or control, as the very first step to address the problem, covering: i) resources targeted; ii) resources being caught incidentally; iii) effects on the resource being caught incidentally (estimate total bycatch in the fishery(ies) and population impact); iv) implementation of mitigation measures known to be effective; and v) information on fishing capacity and effort by gear type;
c) implement appropriate schemes (including, where appropriate, on-board observers or electronic monitoring systems) for fisheries within waters under their jurisdiction, or carried out by flagged fishing vessels under their jurisdiction or control, in order to determine the impact of fisheries bycatch on migratory species. Where relevant, this should be carried out in the context of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ (FAO’s) International Plans of Action on Seabirds and Sharks;
d) encourage research proposals in geographical areas in which there is a particular lack of information and that, at the same time, are not covered by currently existing CMS Agreements. In particular, information is needed on: i) artisanal fisheries, generally; ii) gillnet fisheries, generally; iii) pelagic and bottom trawling, and purse seine fisheries; iv) in the case of cetaceans, special attention is to be paid to South, Southeast and East Asia and West Africa; v) for marine turtles, all fisheries, particularly including long-line fisheries in the Pacific Ocean and impacts on Olive Ridley Turtles in South Asia; vi) for birds, South America and northern hemisphere gillnet and longline fisheries; vii) for sharks, all fisheries;
e) consider and implement ways and means to reduce the amount of discarded and lost nets and other detrimental fishing gear both within their maritime zones and on the high seas, as well as ways and means of minimizing such losses from vessels flying their flag;
Collaboration and Cooperation
15. Requests the Secretariats of CMS and relevant daughter agreements to improve cooperation and communication on bycatch-related issues, and to cooperate closely with other relevant programmes, such as the IWC Bycatch Mitigation Initiative;
16. Invites the Scientific Council and the Working Group on Bycatch to recommend to the Conference of the Parties, as appropriate, concerted actions to be taken by Parties in respect of species listed in Appendices I and II that are affected by bycatch;
17. Instructs the Scientific Council and the Bycatch Working Group to identity for each particular bycatch situation (gear type, species, fishing area and season) the most effective mitigation techniques, which should build upon and complement existing initiatives within the fisheries sector;
18. Requests the Scientific Council to consider any scientific and technical information submitted by Range States or other relevant bodies, relating to impacts on migratory species from bycatch, in particular CMS daughter agreements;
19. Encourages stakeholders to consult experts on all taxa concerned, including the particular expertise available within relevant CMS agreements, to consider the potential effects on aquatic mammals, seabirds, marine turtles and sharks when choosing mitigation measures;
20. Requests the Secretariat, the Scientific Council and Parties to continue and increase efforts to collaborate with other relevant international fora and where appropriate the RFMOs, with a view to avoiding duplication, increasing synergies and raising the profile of CMS and CMS agreements related to aquatic species in these fora;
Theme 3 - Threat Reduction:
Objective 1 - Minimize the impacts of the major hazards listed below on whale and dolphin populations in the Pacific Islands region.
3.2) Foster industry/research institution/government partnership to develop and test mitigation techniques to reduce bycatch and depredation.
Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:
1.4) Minimize the effects of artisinal and commercial fisheries on marine turtles:
1.4.3) Exchange information and, upon request, provide technical assistance to other signatory States to promote these activities;
1.4.4) Liaise and coordinate with fisheries industries and fisheries management organisations to develop and implement incidental capture mitigation mechanisms in national waters and on the high seas.
Objective 3 - Fisheries-related research and data collection:
3.1) Promote stock assessments and related research.
3.2) Develop programmes to establish baseline data and facilitate reporting at a species specific level on:
· Shark catch rates;
· Fishing gear used in shark fisheries;
· The amount of incidental and directed taking;
· The amount of waste and discards;
· Size and sex of individuals caught; and
· Fisheries methods that are sustainable and responsible and protect the habitat.
Objective 4 - Ecologically sustainable management of shark populations, including monitoring, control and surveillance:
4.2) Develop programmes to monitor directed shark fisheries and shark bycatch, including programmes such as vessel monitoring systems, inspections and on-board observer or monitoring programmes.
4.3) Prohibit the taking of species in accordance with paragraph 13 i of the MoU.
4.4) Ensure that mortality rates arising from fishing activities do not exceed levels resulting in a significant decline of populations following the precautionary approach in proactively setting conservation and management measures at all times.
4.5) Encourage relevant bodies to set targets for fish quotas, fishing effort and other restrictions to help achieve sustainable use in line with the best available scientific advice and using the precautionary approach to ensure that all shark catch is within sustainable limits.
4.6) Consider the development or application of certification systems for sustainable shark products.
4.10) Ensure that the global moratorium on all large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing is fully implemented on the high seas of the world’s oceans and seas, including enclosed seas and semi-enclosed seas, in accordance to UN General Assembly Resolution 46/2158.
Objective 5 - Bycatch:
5.1) To the extent practicable, develop and/or use selective gear, devices, and techniques to ensure that the take of sharks in fisheries is sustainable and appropriately managed and that mortality of non-utilized catches is minimized to the greatest extent possible.
5.2) Liaise and coordinate with fishing industries, fisheries management organizations, academic institutions and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to develop and implement incidental capture mitigation mechanisms in national waters and on the high seas, prioritizing work to avoid the capture of protected sharks in accordance with paragraph 13.i of the MoU.
► The CMS COP Resolution 11.16 (Rev. COP12) on The Prevention on Illegal Killing, Taking, and Trade of Migratory Birds calls for the Secretariat to convene an Intergovernmental Task Force to Address Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds.