Target 3: National, regional and international governance arrangements and agreements affecting migratory species and their migration systems have improved significantly, making relevant policy, legislative and implementation processes more coherent, accountable, transparent, participatory, equitable and inclusive.


Anthropogenic Impact


►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.31 (2014) on Fighting wildlife crime and offences within and beyond borders includes:

2) Urges Parties to take appropriate measures to ensure that their legislative framework provides for penalties for wildlife crime that are effective, act as a deterrent and reflect the gravity of the offence and provide for the confiscation of specimens taken in violation of the Convention;

3) Urges Parties and invites non-Parties to strengthen national and transboundary law enforcement with emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation and intelligence sharing between relevant stakeholders, such as rangers, wildlife management, customs, police and the military;

4) Suggests that Parties and non-Parties establish cooperative bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the management of shared wildlife populations and habitats with common boundaries, in order to minimize illegal taking and trafficking.

►    The Resolution 11.13 Concerted and Cooperative Actions includes:

3) Encourages Parties to ensure that all initiatives to undertake Concerted or Cooperative Actions pursuant to this Resolution must include a specification of the conservation and institutional outcomes expected and the timeframes within which these outcomes should be achieved;


Aquatic Species


►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale and Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value

Objective 1 - Document the range of cultural practices, values and knowledge associated with whales and dolphins and encourage a more cohesive approach in policies and legislation.

6.3) Review and identify gaps and conflicts in relevant policies and legislation to support the protection and promotion of traditional resource management (TRM), traditional knowledge (TK), intellectual property rights (IPR), access and benefit sharing (ABS), and customary marine tenure (CMT).

Theme 9 - National, Regional and International Collaboration and Cooperation

Objective 1 - Promote and enhance national, regional and international coordination, collaboration and partnership for whale and dolphin conservation in the Pacific Islands Region

9.1) Promote understanding by facilitating effective information sharing mechanisms (e.g. networks) to assist in addressing cross sectoral issues and migratory species conservation.

9.2) Encourage and support PICTs in removing internal cross sectoral barriers in order to effectively implement the WDAP at the local and national Government levels.

9.4) Promote cooperation and highlight achievements and lessons learned in whale and dolphin conservation at national regional and international fora.

9.7) Ensure integration of whale and dolphin conservation into national, regional and international initiatives including: NBSAPs; National Sustainable Development Strategies; Pacific Islands Regional Oceans Policy; Action Strategy for Nature Conservation, CROP Marine Sector Working Group; RFMOs; NBSAP Working Group). CTI, Micronesian challenge, Oceanscape, Funding opportunities e.g. GEF.

9.8) Coordinate and facilitate the compilation of PICTs position for relevant international processes and MEAs on whales and dolphin.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks; Conservation Plan includes:

Theme 7 - Policy, legislation and law enforcement

Objective 1 - Review of domestic policies

7.1.1 Review domestic policies and laws to address gaps or impediments to the conservation and management of sharks and their habitats.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 4 - Increase public awareness of the threats to marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities

4.2) Identify and facilitate alternative livelihoods (including income generating activities) that are not detrimental to marine turtles and their habitats, in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders

4.3.b) Encourage the participation of Government institutions, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and the general community (e.g. students, volunteers, fishing communities, local communities) in research and conservation efforts

Objective 5- Enhance national, regional and international cooperation

5.5 b) Cooperate in law enforcement to ensure compatible application of laws across and between jurisdictions (including through bilateral/multilateral agreements and intelligence sharing)

Objective 6 - Promote implementation of the MoU including the Conservation and Management Plan

6.4.a) Review the roles and responsibilities of government agencies related to the conservation and management of marine turtles and their habitats

6.4.b) Designate a lead agency responsible for coordinating national marine turtle conservation and management policy

6.4.c) Encourage cooperation within and among government and non-government sectors, including through the development and/or strengthening of national networks

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 6 – Enhance national, regional and international cooperation

6.1) Collaborate with, and assist Signatory and non-Signatory States to combat illegal international and domestic trade, and to cooperate in enforcement activities relating to dugong products

6.3) Improve coordination among government and non-government sectors and communities in the conservation of dugongs and their habitats

Objective 8 – Improve legal protection of dugongs and their habitats

8.1) Encourage all Range States, and ensure Signatory states, incorporate dugong and habitat conservation and protection measures into national legislation

8.2) Review, and where necessary, strengthen national legal protection for dugongs and their habitats