Target 3: National, regional and international governance arrangements and agreements affecting migratory species and their migration systems have improved significantly, making relevant policy, legislative and implementation processes more coherent, accountable, transparent, participatory, equitable and inclusive.
2. Urges Parties to take appropriate measures to ensure that their legislative framework provides for penalties for wildlife crime that are effective, act as a deterrent and reflect the gravity of the offence and provide for the confiscation of specimens taken in violation of the Convention;
3. Urges Parties and invites non-Parties to strengthen national and transboundary law enforcement with emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation and intelligence sharing between relevant stakeholders, such as rangers, wildlife management, customs, police and the military;
4. Suggests that Parties and non-Parties establish cooperative bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the management of shared wildlife populations and habitats with common boundaries, in order to minimize illegal taking and trafficking.
8. Suggests the enacting of national laws that prohibit the possession and sale of illegally obtained wildlife specimens and products other than those that have been confiscated
► The CMS COP Resolution 12.28 on Concerted Actions, include:
1. Determines that Concerted Actions are priority conservation measures, projects, or institutional arrangements undertaken to improve the conservation status of selected Appendix I and Appendix II species or selected groups of Appendix I and Appendix II species that
a) involve measures that are the collective responsibility of Parties acting in concert; or
b) are designed to support the conclusion of an instrument under Article IV of the Convention and enable conservation measures to be progressed in the meantime or represent an alternative to such an instrument;
a) the Guidelines to the Implementation of the Concerted Actions Process contained in Annex 1 to this Resolution; and
b) the Format for Proposing Concerted Actions contained in Annex 2 to this Resolution;
and requests Parties, the Scientific Council, the Secretariat and other relevant stakeholders to take them fully into account in the different steps of the Concerted Actions process;
Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value
Objective 1 - Document the range of cultural practices, values and knowledge associated with whales and dolphins and encourage a more cohesive approach in policies and legislation.
6.3) Review and identify gaps and conflicts in relevant policies and legislation to support the protection and promotion of traditional resource management (TRM), traditional knowledge (TK), intellectual property rights (IPR), access and benefit sharing (ABS), and customary marine tenure (CMT).
Theme 9 - National, Regional and International Collaboration and Cooperation
Objective 1 - Promote and enhance national, regional and international coordination, collaboration and partnership for whale and dolphin conservation in the Pacific Islands Region
9.1) Promote understanding by facilitating effective information sharing mechanisms (e.g. networks) to assist in addressing cross sectoral issues and migratory species conservation.
9.2) Encourage and support PICTs in removing internal cross sectoral barriers in order to effectively implement the WDAP at the local and national Government levels.
9.4) Promote cooperation and highlight achievements and lessons learned in whale and dolphin conservation at national regional and international fora.
9.7) Ensure integration of whale and dolphin conservation into national, regional and international initiatives including: NBSAPs; National Sustainable Development Strategies; Pacific Islands Regional Oceans Policy; Action Strategy for Nature Conservation, CROP Marine Sector Working Group; RFMOs; NBSAP Working Group). CTI, Micronesian challenge, Oceanscape, Funding opportunities e.g. GEF.
9.8) Coordinate and facilitate the compilation of PICTs position for relevant international processes and MEAs on whales and dolphin.
Theme 7 - Policy, legislation and law enforcement
Objective 1 - Review of domestic policies
7.1.1 Review domestic policies and laws to address gaps or impediments to the conservation and management of sharks and their habitats.
► The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:
Objective 4 - Increase public awareness of the threats to marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities
4.2) Identify and facilitate alternative livelihoods (including income generating activities) that are not detrimental to marine turtles and their habitats, in consultation with local communities and other stakeholders
4.3.b) Encourage the participation of Government institutions, non-governmental organisations, the private sector and the general community (e.g. students, volunteers, fishing communities, local communities) in research and conservation efforts
Objective 5- Enhance national, regional and international cooperation
5.5 b) Cooperate in law enforcement to ensure compatible application of laws across and between jurisdictions (including through bilateral/multilateral agreements and intelligence sharing)
Objective 6 - Promote implementation of the MoU including the Conservation and Management Plan
6.4.a) Review the roles and responsibilities of government agencies related to the conservation and management of marine turtles and their habitats
6.4.b) Designate a lead agency responsible for coordinating national marine turtle conservation and management policy
6.4.c) Encourage cooperation within and among government and non-government sectors, including through the development and/or strengthening of national networks
Objective 6 – Enhance national, regional and international cooperation
6.1) Collaborate with, and assist Signatory and non-Signatory States to combat illegal international and domestic trade, and to cooperate in enforcement activities relating to dugong products
6.3) Improve coordination among government and non-government sectors and communities in the conservation of dugongs and their habitats
Objective 8 – Improve legal protection of dugongs and their habitats
8.1) Encourage all Range States, and ensure Signatory states, incorporate dugong and habitat conservation and protection measures into national legislation
8.2) Review, and where necessary, strengthen national legal protection for dugongs and their habitats
► The CMS COP Resolution 12. 11 (Manila 2017) on Flyways includes:
1. Reaffirms the “Programme of Work on Migratory Birds and Flyways 2014-2023” (the POW) included as Annex 1 to this Resolution and urges Parties and signatories to CMS instruments, and encourages non-Parties, organizations and stakeholders to implement the POW as a matter of priority;
2. Reaffirms the “Americas Flyways Framework” included as Annex 2 to this Resolution and urges CMS Parties and signatories to CMS avian instruments in the Americas, and invites non-Parties, organizations and stakeholders to implement the Framework to protect migratory birds and their habitats throughout the Western Hemisphere;
3. Welcomes the establishment of an Americas Flyways Task Force, to coordinate the development and implementation of an Americas Action Plan to achieve the global Programme of Work and Americas Flyways Framework including provisions for concerted conservation action for priority species, and to report to COP13 onwards;
4. Adopts the Action Plan for the Americas Flyways attached as Annex 3 to this Resolution, and developed under the Americas Flyways Framework, and urges Parties and Signatories to CMS avian instruments, and encourages non-Parties, organizations and stakeholders to implement the Action Plan and support efforts of the Americas Flyways Task Force to coordinate its implementation;
1. Calls on Parties, non-Parties and other stakeholders, including non-governmental organizations, to engage in immediate cooperation to address the illegal killing, taking and trade of migratory birds through support of, and collaboration with, existing international initiatives and mechanisms to address these issues, as well as establishing (as appropriate and where added value can be assured) Task Forces targeted at facilitating concerted action to eliminate illegal killing, taking and trade of shared populations of migratory birds in those areas where such problems are prevalent;
2. Calls on the Secretariat to convene an Intergovernmental Task Force to Address Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean2 in conjunction with the Secretariats of AEWA, the Raptors MOU, the AEMLAP and the Bern Convention, involving the Mediterranean Parties, including the European Union, other interested Parties, including from outside the region, and other stakeholders such as BirdLife International and the Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU (FACE), to facilitate the implementation of that existing guidelines and action plans, any necessary new guidelines and action plans relating to the Mediterranean (particularly the Tunis Action Plan) and to consider whether any new guidelines, action plans or other recommendations to respond to specific problems are necessary;
3. Acknowledges the work of MIKT in developing the scoreboard and promotes its use as a voluntary tool for Parties to assess their own progress in combating illegal killing, taking and trade of wild birds included in Annex 1 to this Resolution;
4. Notes that experience from the practical use of the scoreboard should be gathered for its potential further development;
5. Decides to establish, subject to the availability of resources, an Intergovernmental Task Force on Illegal Hunting, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the East AsianAustralasian Flyway (ITTEA) and adopts the Terms of Reference included in Annex 2 to this Resolution;
6. Calls also on the Secretariat actively to work with Parties and non-Party Range States and others in South and Central America and the Caribbean to conduct an assessment of Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in that region;
7. Urges Parties and encourages non-Parties, to ensure adequate national legislation to protect migratory species is in place and properly implemented and enforced, in line with CMS and its relevant associated instruments and other international instruments;
8. Urges Parties and invites non-Parties to promote and ensure synergies between work to implement the Guidelines to Prevent Poisoning of Migratory Birds as adopted through Resolution 11.15, in particular in relation to poisoned baits, and to prevent illegal killing of birds;
►Decision 12.26 on the Task Force on Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean (MIKT) directed to the Parties which are members of the MIKT: a) Periodically use the scoreboard in Annex 1 of UNEP/CMS/Resolution 11.16 (Rev.COP12) on Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds as a national tool to self-assess progress in addressing the illegal killing of wild birds;
b) Provide, on a voluntary basis and to the extent of availability and relevance of information for the indicators, the Secretariat with the information identified in the scoreboard, for the purposes of discussion within the MIKT, to facilitate information sharing and best practice.
► Decision 12.27 on the Task Force on Illegal Killing, Taking and Trade of Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean (MIKT) directedto Parties, IGOs & NGOs, decides that: OthersParties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to implement the Programme of Work of MIKT 2016-2020.
Decision 12.55directed to: Parties
Parties are urged to recognize the importance of the African Carnivores Initiative in implementing CMS Resolutions and Decisions relating to the African Lion (Panthera leo), the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the Leopard (Panthera pardus) and the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) and seeking synergies, inter alia through the joint CMS-CITES Work Programme with work under CITES to implement complementary CITES Resolutions and Decision.
Decision 12.56 directed to Range States
Range States are urged to work through the African Carnivores Initiative to implement CMS Resolutions and Decisions relating to the African Lion (Panthera leo), the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the Leopard (Panthera pardus) and the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus), as a way to increase efficiency and effectiveness of their actions.
Decision 12.57 directed to Parties, IGOs and NGOs:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to provide financial and technical support to the Range State Parties of the African Lion (Panthera leo), the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), the Leopard (Panthera pardus) and the African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus) and to the Secretariat for their work through the African Carnivores Initiative in implementing the relevant CMS Resolutions and Decisions.
Decision 12.62 directed to Parties: Parties are requested to:
a) Collaborate in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.61, paragraphs a) 1-7.´;
b) Develop and implement within communities, evidence-based strategies that reduce livestock depredation by Cheetah and African Wild Dog;
c) Develop and implement within communities, evidence-based strategies that reduce disease transmission to African Wild Dogs;
d) Promote wildlife-based income generation mechanisms that benefit both people and wildlife;
e) Provide policy environments that better support sustainable wildlife-based enterprises;
f) Ensure that legislation that protects Cheetahs and African Wild Dogs is in place and that penalties for transgression are sufficiently high to act as a deterrent;
g) Enforce protection within protected areas and maintain buffer zones and connectivity outside, in order to secure the large landscapes necessary for Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation;
h) Ensure that all large-scale infrastructure development, including fencing and roadbuilding, allows Cheetahs and African Wild Dogs to pass through safely;
i) Consider land zoning options to maintain and restore important areas for Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation outside protected areas;
j) Investigate opportunities to ensure that Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation are integrated into relevant educational curricula at national and subnational levels, including schools, universities and professional training colleges;
k) Collaborate and exchange best conservation practices regarding the preservation and restoration of African Wild Dog and Cheetah populations, and cooperate with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and other interested organizations in taking actions at the national and regional level, in particular with regard to: habitat conservation; the establishment of ecological corridors to address habitat fragmentation; the management of infectious diseases; the restoration of prey-basis; human-wildlife conflicts; and trade, including trade in captive bred specimens;
l) Assist the Secretariat, to present a summary report to the Standing Committee at its 48th and 49th meetings on the progress in implementing the Decisions.
Decision 12.63 directed to Range and Consumer States for African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus)
In support of CITES Decisions 17.235 to 17.238, Range and Consumer States of African Wild Dog are encouraged to share with Burkina Faso information about:
a) Measures implemented by range States to prevent illegal trade in African Wild Dog;
b) Trade in African Wild Dog, including levels and sources of specimens in trade;
c) Collaboration amongst Range States of African Wild Dog and exchange of best conservation practices for the preservation and restoration of the species; and collaboration with CMS, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and other interested organisations in taking actions at the national and regional level, in particular with regard to: habitat conservation, the establishment of ecological corridors, the management of infectious diseases, the restoration of prey-basis and humanwildlife conflict.
Decision 12.66 directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs, donors and other entities:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to support the Cheetah and African Wild Dog Range States and the Secretariat in their efforts to conserve and restore these species across their range; and in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.61, paragraph a), sub-paragraphs 1-7 and Decision 12.62 paragraphs b) – k).
Decision 12.68 directed to Parties, Parties are requested to:
a) Collaborate in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.67 a), paragraphs i – ix;
Decision 12.70 directed to: Parties, IGOs & NGOs, Others:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to support the African Lion Range States and the Secretariat in their efforts to conserve and restore this iconic species across the continent, taking into consideration existing landuse practices; and in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.67 a), paragraphs i. – ix.
2. Encourages Parties to implement the Strategic Plan for Migratory Species fully and to monitor and report on progress in the achievement of its targets using designated indicators, thus contributing to the achievement and assessment of the objectives of the CMs Family, the 2020 Aichi Targets and the SDGs;
4. Encourages Parties to develop national legal frameworks to implementing the obligations of the Convention in support of the SDGs;
5. Calls upon Parties to incorporate the necessary measures for conserving migratory species in the United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs) and in any National Planning Strategies;
6. Urges Parties and relevant stakeholders to promote and improve coordination for the implementation of the Convention at national level, including through coordination among National Focal Points of relevant Multilateral Environmental Agreements, coordination between different sectors of government and collaboration with the private sector; and to integrate wildlife considerations of their economic and social policies
5. Stresses the desirability of concluding AGREEMENTS in accordance with Article V of the Convention whenever such AGREEMENTS are needed because of the nature of the obligations to be undertaken by the Parties
9. Urges all Range States of existing Agreements under the Convention that have not yet done so to sign, ratify or accede as appropriate to those Agreements and to take an active part in their implementation;
1. Decides to establish a review mechanism to facilitate compliance with the obligations set out in Articles III.4, III.5, III.7, and VI.2 of the Convention (“implementation matters”);
2. Decides also to establish a National Legislation Programme to support strengthening the implementation of the Convention through national legislation and support Parties, if needed, in developing or improving relevant national legislation.
1. Urges CMS Focal Points and Scientific Councillors to communicate and liaise regularly with the national representatives in the IPBES to ensure that the needs for research and policy guidance related to migratory species, especially those listed under CMS, are being adequately addressed by IPBES;
2. Invites IPBES to address science-policy linkages and the need for assessments, policy support, capacity building and knowledge generation relating to the conservation and sustainable use of migratory species of wild animals;
4. Requests the Scientific Council to participate in relevant processes of IPBES, in collaboration with the scientific advisory bodies of other MEAs as appropriate;
5. Instructs the Secretariat to maintain cooperative working relationships with IPBES, to participate as appropriate in meetings of the Platform and to report on progress to the Standing Committee, resources permitting.
Decision 12.94 directed to Parties, Parties are invited to:
a) Identify transboundary habitats of CMS-listed species, which could be considered as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), meaning an area or component of a large ecological region that straddles the boundaries of two or more countries and is within their national jurisdiction, which may encompass one or more protected areas, as well as multiple resource use areas;
b) Consider developing jointly with neighbouring Range States bi- or multilateral arrangements, including joint management plans, to improve the conservation of the habitats and species concerned;
c) Enable, in the development of such arrangements the participation of local communities and stakeholders for the purposes of benefitting wildlife and the sustainable development of the communities living within it.
Decision 12.96 directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs:
Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to provide financial and technical support to implement Decisions 12.94 and 12.95.
Please, also continuing in implementing the following instruments:
► The Americas Flyways Framework: A Framework For The Conservation Of Migratory Birds In The Americas attached to Resolution 12.11as Annex 2
► Decision 12.36 on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Vultures, directed to Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, that decides as follows: Parties, non-Party Range States and stakeholders are encouraged to:
a) Develop partnerships with anti-poaching initiatives and conservation groups concerned with poisoning of other taxonomic groups, including developing training courses, translating and disseminating examples of best practice, sharing protocols and regulations, transferring technology, and promoting the use of online tools to address specific issues that are relevant to the Vulture Multispecies Action Plan;
b) Contribute, with the support of the Secretariat, to the proposed workshop hosted by CMS-United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), referred to in UNEP/CMS/COP12/Doc.24.1.2 on the Conservation of Migratory Landbirds in the African-Eurasian Region (especially in relation to sustainable land use in Africa), to ensure the needs of vultures are provided for in the development of a plan (to be proposed for adoption at the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties) on the integration of biodiversity requirements, as indicated by wild birds, into the land degradation neutrality delivery at national level with a focus on West Africa (countries of the Sahel and Guinea Savannah) and potentially also North-West Africa (countries of the Maghreb), subject to the availability of resources.
► The Action Plan for the Protection and Conservation of South Atlantic Whales included as Annex in CMS COP Resolution 12.17
► Decision 12.54 on the Conservation and Management of Whales and their Habitats in the South Atlantic Region, directed to Parties: Parties are requested to report on progress in implementing the Action Plan for the Protection and Conservation of South Atlantic Whales (Annex 1 to UNEP/CMS/Resolution 12.17 on Conservation and management of Whales and their Habitats in the South Atlantic Region), including monitoring and efficacy of measures taken, to the Conference of the Parties at each of its meetings.
► The Roadmap for The Conservation of The African Wild Ass, Equus Africanus adopted through CMS COP Resolution 12.18
► Decision 12.71 on the Conservation of the African Wild Ass, Equus Africanus Requests Djibouti, Egypt, and Somalia, as former Range States and invites Sudan to conduct research into whether naturally occurring extant populations of the African Wild Ass remain in their territory, and to report their findings to the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
The EUROBATS MOP Resolution 8.9 Bats, Insulation and Lining Materials includes:
10. Develop appropriate national guidelines, drawing on the general guidance to be finalised by the Advisory Committee.