Target 2: Multiple values of migratory species and their habitats have been integrated into international, national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes, including on livelihoods, and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.


A number of existing decisions and instruments developed under the CMS Family provide for different resourcing mechanisms and opportunities aiming at:

  • Evaluating the socio-economic value of species and their services to commercial activities;
  • Evaluating economic potential for commercial activities based on species;
  • Developing alternative income generation activities.


►    The Action Plan for the conservation of southern South American migratory grassland bird species and their habitats, adopted within the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Southern South American Migratory Grassland includes:

Objective 1 - To promote the protection and management of grasslands of importance for migratory species:

2.1) To promote, develop and/or strengthen financial and/or market incentives, economic alternatives for farmers who manage grasslands in a manner consistent with the ecological requirements of species, especially in critical areas for threatened species.

Objective 6 - To strengthen international cooperation among the countries party to the Memorandum of Understanding:

13.4) Explore natural grasslands potential as sinks for carbon credit markets. Conduct basic research.

►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Theme 8 – Tourism Based on Small Cetaceans:

Objective 8.1 - Ensure best practice management and maximise educational and economic values of tourism based on small cetaceans in the western African region:

· Evaluate biological and infrastructure potential for commercial whale and dolphin watching through feasibility studies and establish or facilitate contacts with possible investors.

· Develop a mechanism to document industry growth (building on western African tourism organizations/IFAW etc. work).

· Monitor, document and support western African countries with whale and dolphin watching activities in addressing licensing, regulation and management issues.