Target 1: People are aware of the multiple values of migratory species and their habitats and migration systems, and the steps they can take to conserve them and ensure the sustainability of any use.
► The CMS Communication, Information and Outreach Plan 2015-2017 COP Resolution 11.8 (2014) and the Communication, Information and Outreach Plan 2015 - 2017 outlines the top-priority activities designed to enhance the strategic focus and overall CMS and CMS family communications over the course of the 2015-2017 triennium.
The CMS Communication Strategy (under development) will be designed explicitly to support the Strategic Plan for Migratory Species. Under this Strategy the communication work of the CMS Family as a whole will continue to contribute directly to the achievement of Target 1, and to outreach in respect of all the other targets. The communication strategy will be accessible on the CMS website along with a suite of communication materials, such as template PowerPoint presentations, fact sheets and posters which NFPs can adapt and use to promote the Convention and the wider CMS Family in their national contexts.
The platform for communication of the CMS Capacity Building Unit is workshops in different regions. Capacity building outreach activities also engage with the broad public to raise awareness on migratory species. Events are planned e.g. at schools in the framework of the yearly World Environment Day.
The Capacity-Building Unit also prepares documents outlining the benefits of CMS to be distributed to Non-Parties with the aim to recruit them.Two manuals produced by the Capacity Building Unit that provide guidelines forNational Focal Points to implement the Strategic Plan for Migratory Species), contain relevant elements to support Target 1.
► The Manual for the National Focal Points for CMS and its Instruments. 2013. UNEP / CMS Secretariat and UNEP/ AEWA Secretariat, Bonn, Germany).
► The Guidelines on the Integration of Migratory Species into National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.27) (see also Target 13).
The following CMS instruments provide elements in support of implementing Target 1 which can guide Parties to those instruments to developing awareness raising strategies.
► The CMS Resolution 11.30 (2014) - Management of Marine Debris includes:
Objective 3 - Public Awareness and Education Campaigns:
18) Strongly encourages Parties to note the examples of successful campaigns provided in UNEP/CMS/ScC18/10.4.3 when considering campaigns to address the most pressing needs in their area of jurisdiction, and to support or develop national or regional initiatives that respond to these needs;
19) Recommends that Parties planning to implement regulatory measures or economic instruments in order to reduce the amount of waste entering the environment to accompany these with behavioural change campaigns aiding their introduction by communicating the rationale for introducing the measure, and therefore increasing the likelihood of support;
20) Encourages Parties and the Secretariat to cooperate with organizations currently campaigning on marine debris, and seek to engage organizations dealing with migratory species to promote campaigns and raise awareness of marine debris amongst their members;
21) Further encourages Parties, the Secretariat and stakeholders to develop marine debris campaigns of specific relevance to migratory species;
22) Invites industry bodies to promote debris prevention measures across their industries; and
23) Calls on campaign organizations to survey the campaign reach, message recognition and impact upon the target behaviour or levels of marine debris in order to evaluate the success of a campaign and readily share that information to enable future campaigns to be effective.
Details supporting the recommendations in the above-mentioned Resolution 11.30 (2014) on Management of Marine Debris and providing guidance on ways to implement them can be found in UNEP/CMS/COP11/ Inf.29 Report III: Marine Debris: Public Awareness and Education Campaigns.
Measures - Knowledge exchange and capacity-building:
· Increase awareness of the impacts of climate change on migratory species.
Theme 1 - Information, Awareness/Education and Communication:
Objective 2 - Increase awareness and understanding of whales and dolphins in the region:
1.5) Implement educational and awareness tools in schools and/or communities using relevant networks and methods.
1.6) Provide materials and information to mass media in-country to inform public.
1.7) Disseminate educational materials targeted at recreational / private boaters to ensure minimum impact”.
Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value:
6.1) Document the range of cultural practices, values and knowledge associated with whales and dolphins and encourage a more cohesive approach in policies and legislation.
► The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU):
Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:
1.5) Prohibit the direct harvest (capture or killing) of, and domestic trade in, marine turtles, their eggs, parts or products, whilst allowing exceptions for traditional harvest by communities within each jurisdiction provided that: such harvest does not undermine efforts to protect, conserve and recover marine turtle populations and their habitats; and the marine turtle populations in question are able to sustain the harvest.
Objective 4 - Increase public awareness of the threats to marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities:
4.1) Establish public education, awareness and information programmes.
► The Memorandum of Understanding concerning conservation measures for marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa: Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:
Objective 4 - Increase public awareness to threats facing marine turtles and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities:
4.1) Establish public education programs for awareness and information exchange:
4.1.2) Set up information centers for villages, small museums for schools and tourists;
4.1.3) Develop and implement rigorous media programs;
4.1.4_ Develop and undertake education and awareness programs for targeted groups (e.g. for the relevant authorities and politicians, students, teachers, fishing communities, beach owners, the media);
4.1.5) Encourage the integration of biodiversity themes, especially marine turtle biology and conservation, into school curriculum;
4.1.6) Organize special events on the conservation of marine turtles and their habitats (e.g., day of the turtle, festival or year of the turtle, publicized releases of accidentally captured turtles, etc.); and
4.1.8) Provide information at airports and through travel agencies, about national and international restrictions on the sale, purchase, export and import of marine turtle products.
Objective 5 – Raise awareness of dugong conservation:
5.1) Establish education, awareness and information programmes.
5.2) Consult with local communities to encourage their active participation in conservation efforts.
Objective 6 – Enhance national, regional and international cooperation:
6.2) Develop and implement mechanisms for effective exchange of information.
6.4) Develop and implement a regional database of relevant information in relation to dugong conservation and management.
The website: http://www.dugongconservation.org/ which aims to promote dugong and seagrass conservation globally, has been developed with Global Environment Facilities funding by the Dugong MOU Secretariat for the GEF Dugong and Seagrass Conservation Project.
► The Memorandum of Understanding concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:
Objective 7 - Education and Awareness:
7.1) Develop communication strategies, education programmes and protocols for key issues within the Small Cetacean Action Plan.
7.2) Increase awareness, sensitivity and understanding of small cetaceans in the western African region.
7.3) Promote awareness of the value of traditional knowledge and practices in the management of small cetaceans.
► The ASCOBANS Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) Plan (Annex 10 of AC17 Report) includes:
Objective 2 - Coordination between Secretariat and hosts of MOP/AC to promote ASCOBANS activities:
1.2.2) IDBHP (International Day of the Baltic Harbour Porpoise): maximise involvement & target group Publicise AC & MoP in national media.
1.4.2) Countries attending relevant meetings should look for opportunities to promote ASCOBANS and also opportunities for joint outreach. Suitable material for distribution should be provided to any person who can represent or publicise ASCBANS activities at such meetings.
Objective 5 - Enhance visibility of CMS family:
5.9.1) Promote cooperation with ministerial press departments to distribute joint press releases.
5.9.2) Focal point to translate press releases into national languages and pass them to national media.
5.9.3) Improve visibility of CMS and Agreements at a national level.
5.9.4) Provide the Secretariat with relevant articles issued in the national press.
► The ASCOBANS Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises includes:
Objective 15 - Develop a comprehensive public awareness campaign, based on the elements outlined below:
1) While acknowledging national programmes in raising public awareness, ASCOBANS should develop and promote a regional approach to Baltic harbour porpoise conservation.
2) Explicit efforts should be made to enlist the help of the general public and people related to the sea in obtaining reports of porpoise observations throughout the Baltic. This can be expected to improve understanding of porpoise distribution and relative abundance, while at the same time enhancing public support for recovery efforts. However, it is important that opportunistic reports by untrained observers be interpreted cautiously, and that the need for documentary evidence (e.g. photographs, tissue samples in the case of strandings) be stressed when soliciting such reports.
3) The ASCOBANS Secretariat should establish direct communications links with Baltic fishermen and seek their assistance in determining how to reach fishing communities more effectively, e.g. via newsletters, tabloids, displays at fishing exhibitions, etc.
4) The Baltic Range States should establish national focal points, with responsibility for coordinating public awareness efforts. These focal points would be responsible for establishing and maintaining working relationships with fishing communities and other target groups.
5) Parties are requested to provide assistance to maintain an interactive Baltic harbour porpoise website for the storage of GIS-based porpoise observation data. This web page should incorporate other existing possibilities to report sightings of harbour porpoises. The page should be designed for use throughout the Baltic region. This website may provide further opportunities for collaboration with relevant bodies such as HELCOM.
Note: a revised version of the Recovery Plan is under preparation and will be presented for adoption at ASCOBANS MOP8 in August 2016.
► The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks; Conservation Plan (Annex 3) includes:
Objective 4 - Increasing public awareness of threats to sharks and their habitats, and enhance public participation in conservation activities:
12.1) Increase knowledge of the ecosystem services provided by sharks and knowledge about sharks in their marine environment.
12.2) Raise public awareness of threats to sharks and their habitats.
12.3) Raise public awareness of this Memorandum of Understanding and its objectives.
The most significant campaign to raise awareness on migratory birds is World Migratory Bird Day, which is run on a yearly basis and each year selects a different topic to focus on.
► CMS Resolution 11.9 (2014) as well as ► AEWA Resolution 5.5 (2012) address this and seeks to develop a variety of activities to support awareness raising campaigns. Specifically, Resolution 11.9 invitesParties, the CMS and AEWA Secretariats, the United Nations Environment Programme and other global, regional and sub-regional organizations, as well as other relevant stakeholders, including civil society, non-governmental organizations and individuals, to celebrate and raise awareness of World Migratory Bird Day to be held in May or at other appropriate times of the year.
► The African-Eurasian Migratory Landbirds Action Plan (AEMLAP) includes:
Objective 2 - Taking and Trade:
44) Promote public experience of the wonder of migration and migratory landbird species by raising awareness and providing information, and where appropriate regulate access to congregatory sites or bottlenecks.
48) Raise public awareness of the poisoning risk migratory landbird species face from direct and indirect targetingby hunters, farmers, developers and other land users.
Objective 4 - Research and monitoring:
58) Support and encourage public participation in ‘Friends of the Landbirds Action Plan’ (FLAP), an initiative that will use online social media to provide a forum for all interested in and who care about migratory landbird species to follow, support and contribute to the work of the AEML-WG.
Under the African-Eurasian Migratory Landbirds Action Plan (AEMLAP) a tool has been created to promote the action plan and raise awareness, known as the Friends of the Landbirds Action Plan (FLAP).
► The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU) includes:
Objective 8 - General Conservation Measures:
8. 8) Develop and maintain programmes to raise awareness and understanding of conservation issues relating to birds of prey and their habitat as well as of the objectives and provisions of this Memorandum of Understanding”.
► The Action Plan annexed to the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard includes:
Objective 8 - Increasing awareness of the need to protect Great Bustards and their habitat:
8.3) The public should be informed about the problems of the Great Bustard, the need for its protection and the conservation measures being undertaken. The media as well as the political decision makers and local and regional authorities should be addressed regularly to raise the profile of the Great Bustard as an outstanding feature of European plains and as an invaluable asset to the European natural heritage.
► The Action Plan for the conservation of southern South American migratory grassland bird species and their habitats, adopted within the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Southern South American Migratory Grassland Bird Species and their Habitats includes:
Objective 3 - To raise awareness on the importance of natural grasslands and endangered species:
7.1) Development of a logo that identifies the MOU and its objectives.
7.2) To develop educational campaigns to discourage species illegal trade.
7.3) To promote outreach and assessment campaigns on species and their environments.
7.4) Developing, producing outreach material on the species and their environments.
7.5) To promote organization of symposia on grassland birds in national/international ornithology meetings, conservation meetings and agricultural sector meetings.
Objective 4 - Management of Human Activities:
4.6.5) Range States shall:
· Develop education and awareness activities:
· Preferably in local languages, in order to improve the level of awareness of the general public with regard to the value of wetlands and other habitats and the needs of waterbirds by:
· E- producing CAF posters and leaflets.
· Organizing outdoor excursions.
· E-signing multi-lingual websites, TV and radio programmes, and others.
These activities should be firstly targeted to people living in and around important wetlands, to users of these wetlands (farmers, hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.), to local authorities, to community leaders and other decision-makers. Support and guidance should be sought from national and international organizations to maximize efforts.
► The Programme of Work of the Central Asian Mammals Initiative (CAMI POW) includes:
Objective 1 - To address key threats and issues currently not (sufficiently) covered by existing work programmes and stakeholders:
1.2.4) Develop and promote awareness and educational programmes on wildlife protection among herding communities.
1.3.2) Increase public-awareness on barriers to migration, specifically:
1.3.2.a) Raise awareness of the broad public on benefits from migratory species,
1.3.2.b) Raise awareness of the broad public on impacts of barriers on migratory species and possible solutions, and
1.3.2.c) Conduct information campaigns targeted at decision makers in government, sector and technical agencies.
1.7.4) Increase awareness, specifically to:
1.7.4.c) Promote the benefits of transboundary cooperation among governments and stakeholders, and
1.7.4.b) Provide positive examples for successful cooperation and share lessons learned.
Objective 4 - To support implementation, coordination and resourcing of the CAMI:
4.2.11) Initiate systematic awareness raising among private companies (Corporate Social Responsibility funds).
4.3.1) Raise awareness and understanding about the importance of the Central Asian region for migratory mammals at all levels through all means.
In addition, developing guidelines on how to address these issues for decision makers is foreseen under several objectives on CAMI POW. The benefit of sustainable use of the habitat of migratory species is specifically addressed under the objectives to ensure sustainable grazing practices by livestock, which would ensure continued ecosystem services of pasture use (Objective 1.2. overgrazing and livestock competition).
► The Medium-Term International Work Programme (MTIWP) for the Saiga Antelope (2016-2020), includes:
Objective 5 - Awareness:
5.1) Continue an objective high-profile mass-media campaign at regional, national and local levels in both Range States and consumer countries, addressing saiga conservation, restoration and sustainable use, and explaining the relevant challenges, with a particular focus on local media outlets.
5.2) Continue to widely distribute information and educational materials on saiga biology and conservation aimed at local people, school children and decision-makers.
5.3) Support and regularly update existing web-sites about saiga conservation, restoration and sustainable use, including the creation and maintenance of the official CMS Saiga MOU website, and support of the online Saiga Resource Centre.
5.4) Expand the distribution and profile of Saiga News, both in hard copy at a local level and through other media, nationally and internationally.
Objective 4 - Work with local people to:
4.1) Expand current incentive-based and conservation-linked livelihood-improvement projects and develop new programmes;
4.4) Promote sustainable rangeland use to enable the cohabitation of people, livestock and saigas; and
4.6) Promote photo-tourism.
Theme 2 - Reduce mortality:
Objective 4 - Increase public awareness:
4.1) Involvement of mass-media (regional, state, local level) in the problem of BD restoration.
4.2) Practical works of regional specialists with local people: lecture, excursions, involvement of local communities in practical works on BD restoration.
Objective 1 - To stabilize argali numbers and range and reverse negative trends:
1.2.11) Discuss among all stakeholders the possibility of sustainable use of argali in countries where trophy hunting does not exist at present.
Objective 3 - To fill knowledge and information gaps:
3.1.8) Organize training, workshops and joint monitoring missions for management staff and scientists as well as local people.
► Medium Term International Work Programme supporting the implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the West African Populations of the African Elephant (West African Elephant MoU MTIWP) currently being revised, includes the objective to organize information, education and communication campaigns, involving local communities.
Note: The CITES African Elephant Action Plan is the current leading effort towards the conservation of African elephants. A resolution to adopt it into CMS will be submitted to COP 12.
► The Sahelo-Saharan Megafauna Action Plan includes:
Theme 2 - Reduce mortality:
Objective 1 - Increase public awareness:
2.1.1) Conduct education programmes for local communities to increase consciousness and appreciation of heritage, and integrate those communities into conservation projects from the start.
2.1.2) Provide documentation destined for tour operators to limit irresponsible hunting, killing or harassment.
2.1.3) Provide information to diplomatic services to help them counsel cooperants to curb poaching and other disturbances.
2.1.4) Locate companies that employ cooperants susceptible of presenting a considerable threat and enlist their assistance in curbing detrimental activities.
Websites for the Central Asian Mammals Initiative, Saiga MOU, Saiga Resource Centre serve as additional awareness raising tools by providing general information on the species and the ecological importance of migrations.