Target 14: The traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory species, their habitats and migration systems, and their customary sustainable use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, thereby contributing to the favourable conservation status of migratory species and the ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.


Several decisions and instruments developed under the CMS Family provide for resourcing mechanisms and opportunities aimed at:

   - Exploring opportunities for funding and for submitting grant applications together with and in support of local communities; and

   - Ensuring the equitable benefit sharing of revenues from trophy hunting and ecotourism/wildlife watching to local communities.


►    The International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Argali:

Objective 1 - To stabilize argali numbers and range and reverse negative trends:

1.2.4) Ensure the equitable benefit sharing of revenues from trophy hunting to local communities.

►    The MoU concerning the conservation of the Manatee and small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia: Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of Western Africa and Macaronesia includes:

Theme 8 – Tourism Based on Small Cetaceans:

Objective 1 - Ensure best practice management and maximise educational and economic values of tourism based on small cetaceans in the western African region:

8.1.5) Ensure that socio-economic benefits of whale and dolphin watching reach local communities.