Target 14: The traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory species, their habitats and migration systems, and their customary sustainable use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, thereby contributing to the favourable conservation status of migratory species and the ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.


Aquatic Species


►    The Memorandum of Understanding for the conservation of cetaceans and their habitats in the Pacific Islands Region: Whale And Dolphin Action Plan 2013-2017 includes:

Theme 6 - Cultural Significance and Value:

Objective 3 - Ensure appropriate cultural knowledge, practices, and values inform and underpin management measures:

6.10) Ensure traditional protocols and knowledge are respected in the design and implementation of biological surveys.

6.11) Ensure national and local policies and management respect and draw upon traditional knowledge.

6.12) Support development of community (based) management plans to include conservations of whales and dolphins.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks; Conservation Plan includes:

Objective 2 - Information exchange:

2.6) Disseminate traditional knowledge on sharks and their habitats.

Objective 4 - Ecologically sustainable management of shark populations, including monitoring, control and surveillance:

4.9) Encourage the participation of indigenous and local communities (ILC) in the fishery management process.

Objective 13 - Stakeholder participation:

13.1) Encourage the participation of indigenous and local communities in the implementation of the Conservation Plan.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.5.d) Determine the cultural and traditional values and economic uses of marine turtles (both consumptive and non-consumptive).

1.5.e) Negotiate, where appropriate, management agreements on the sustainable level of traditional harvest, in consultation with other concerned States, to ensure that such harvest does not undermine conservation efforts.

Objective 3 - Improve understanding of marine turtle ecology and populations through research, monitoring and information exchange:

3.1.g) Promote the use of traditional ecological knowledge in research studies.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 1 – Reduce direct and indirect causes of dugong mortality:

1.5) Ensure that subsistence and customary use of dugong is sustainable in areas where it is permitted.

Objective 5 – Raise awareness of dugong conservation:

5.2) Consult with local communities to encourage their active participation in conservation efforts.


Avian Species


►    The Action Plan - Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of the Middle-European Population of the Great Bustard includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat protection:

1.2.3) Calls for the continuation of traditional agricultural methods which are favourable to the Great Bustard.

►   The CMS COP Resolution 11.17 (Rev.COP12) on Migratory Landbirds in the African-Eurasian Region  adopted the  African-Eurasian Migratory Landbirds Action Plan (AEMLAP) which includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat Conservation: Land-use changes involving traditional agriculture including pastoralism and small-scale cropping systems. Work with and empower local communities to advocate, develop and implement participatory approaches and incentives aimed at integrated, sustainable management of natural resources. This should encourage sustainable small-scale agriculture and woodland management, zonation of grazing, alternative income generation including habitat restoration where appropriate, improving both human livelihoods and the quality of habitat for migratory landbird species. Promote participatory approaches in the planning, management and conservation of sites, so as to enable the engagement of, and benefit-sharing with, local communities where these are present.


►    The Programme of Work on Migratory Birds and Flyways (2014-2023), attached as Annex I to Resolution 12.11 includes:

Planning and implementation of actions require close communication and consultation with local communities to ensure the plans and actions adequately take into consideration local needs and priorities and benefit to local livelihoods.


►    The  Americas Flyways Framework: A Framework For The Conservation Of Migratory Birds In The Americas attached to Resolution 12.11as Annex 2, includes:

Strategic Goal 4: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity, ecosystem services and migratory birds

• Action 12. Empower local communities to conserve their resources Empower local people and communities (including indigenous and traditional peoples) and provide them with the tools, knowledge and means to enable them to protect and manage their natural resources for the benefit of mankind, their communities, birds, and biodiversity as a whole


Terrestrial Species:

Decision 12.61-12.66 on the Conservation and Management of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus)include:

Decision 12.62 directed to Parties: Parties are requested to:

a) Collaborate in implementing the Decisions contained in Decision 12.61, paragraphs a) 1-7.´;

b) Develop and implement within communities, evidence-based strategies that reduce livestock depredation by Cheetah and African Wild Dog;

c) Develop and implement within communities, evidence-based strategies that reduce disease transmission to African Wild Dogs;

d) Promote wildlife-based income generation mechanisms that benefit both people and wildlife;

e) Provide policy environments that better support sustainable wildlife-based enterprises;

f) Ensure that legislation that protects Cheetahs and African Wild Dogs is in place and that penalties for transgression are sufficiently high to act as a deterrent;

g) Enforce protection within protected areas and maintain buffer zones and connectivity outside, in order to secure the large landscapes necessary for Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation;

j) Investigate opportunities to ensure that Cheetah and African Wild Dog conservation are integrated into relevant educational curricula at national and subnational levels, including schools, universities and professional training colleges; 

k) Collaborate and exchange best conservation practices regarding the preservation and restoration of African Wild Dog and Cheetah populations, and cooperate with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and other interested organizations in taking actions at the national and regional level, in particular with regard to: habitat conservation; the establishment of ecological corridors to address habitat fragmentation; the management of infectious diseases; the restoration of prey-basis; human-wildlife conflicts; and trade, including trade in captive bred specimens;



►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.31 (2014) on Fighting wildlife crime and offences within and beyond borders includes:

7. Calls upon Parties, non-Parties and relevant development agencies to promote alternative livelihoods in local communities in order to minimize wildlife crime and offences;


►   Decision 12.98-12.100 on Community Participation and Livelihoods include:

Decision 12.98 directed to the Secretariat: The Secretariat shall, subject to the availability of external resources,

a) Prepare a study of best-practice cases of community involvement in the conservation and management of CMS-listed species, including factors such as land rights, management responsibilities, authority over distribution of benefits by communities and spiritual values;

b) Based on the results of the best-practice case study and, where feasible, in cooperation with the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), facilitate the organization of workshops and side-events to showcase livelihood experiences and exchange lessons learnt, in collaboration with interested Parties and relevant international and regional organizations;

c) Report to the Standing Committee at its 48th and 49th meetings and the Conference of the Parties at its 13th meeting on the progress in implementing this Decision.

Decision 12.99 directed to Parties:
Parties are invited to cooperate with the Secretariat in compiling information on instruments, including legislation, policies and action plans that promote community involvement in conservation of CMS-listed species;

Decision 12.100 directed to Parties, IGOs & NGOs:

Parties, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to provide financial and technical support to the Secretariat in developing the study referred to in Decisions 12.98, paragraphs (a) and (b) and Decision 12.99.