Target 11: Migratory species and their habitats which provide important ecosystem services are maintained at or restored to favourable conservation status, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.


Anthropogenic Impact


►    The CMS COP Resolution 11.29 (2014) on Sustainable boat-based marine wildlife watching includes:

1) Urges Parties, in whose areas of jurisdiction commercial operations involving marine boat-based wildlife watching take place, to adopt appropriate measures, such as national guidelines, codes of conduct, and if necessary, national legislation, binding regulations or other regulatory tools, to promote ecologically sustainable wildlife watching.


Aquatic Species


►    The MoU concerning conservation measures for marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa: Conservation and Management Plan for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.3.1) Undertake socio-economic studies on communities that interact with marine turtles and their habitats.

►    The Conservation and Management Plan of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU) includes:

Objective 1 - Reduce direct and indirect causes of marine turtle mortality:

1.5.b) Assess the level and impact of traditional harvest on marine turtles and their eggs.

1.5.c) Establish management programmes that may include limits on levels of intentional harvest.

1.5.d) Determine the cultural and traditional values and economic uses of marine turtles (both consumptive and non-consumptive).

1.5.e) Negotiate, where appropriate, management agreements on the sustainable level of traditional harvest, in consultation with other concerned States, to ensure that such harvest does not undermine conservation efforts.

►    The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Dugongs (Dugon dugong) and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugong MoU) includes:

Objective 1 – Reduce direct and indirect causes of dugong mortality:

1.5) Ensure that subsistence and customary use of dugong is sustainable in areas where it is permitted.

Objective 5 – Raise awareness of dugong conservation:

5.2) Consult with local communities to encourage their active participation in conservation efforts.


Avian Species


►    The African-Eurasian Migratory Landbirds Action Plan (AEMLAP) includes:

Objective 1 - Habitat conservation: Conservation and/or design of such agricultural landscapes needs to be promoted through agricultural policy and advocacy, integrating considerations of biodiversity and the requirements of migratory landbird species with the provision of ecosystem services, and measures for combating poverty, desertification and the longer-term effects of climate change whilst taking account of food, water and energy security imperatives. Consideration of where to site new intensive agricultural development zones should therefore ideally be addressed by national or regional Strategic Environmental Assessments that bring together all of these sectors.


Note: The following planned Resolutions are expected to include relevant measures:

►    CMS COP12 Resolution on Aquatic Bushmeat




►    The Resolution 10.3 - The Role of Ecological Networks in the Conservation of Migratory Species includes:

6) Further encourages Parties and relevant organizations, when implementing systems of protected areas, and other relevant site/area-based conservation measures, to:

6.2) set network-scale objectives for the conservation of these species within such systems, including by restoration of fragmented and degraded habitats and removal of barriers to migration.


Terrestrial Species


The Western African elephant MOU Medium Term International Work Programme (under revision) includes an activity to evaluate the service provided by elephants to traditional medicine and to cultural activities and other associated beliefs.