Saker Falcon Global Action Plan (SakerGAP) published on World Wildlife Day
Abu Dhabi, 3 March 2014 – World Wildlife Day is an opportunity to raise awareness of the intrinsic value of wildlife and to the way in which it contributes to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. Migratory birds of prey are a critically important part of many ecosystems. As top-level predators they can act as sentinels to the health of the environment. In addition, throughout human history certain raptor species have been afforded special cultural significance for many reasons. For example, the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) is considered a heritage icon by rulers and peoples, particularly in the Gulf Region, for its prowess as a hunter in falconry.
On the occasion of World Wildlife Day, the Coordinating Unit of the CMS Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) is pleased to announce the publication of a draft Saker Falcon Global Action Plan (SakerGAP), and the commencement of a two month public consultation exercise. We encourage Range State governments, stakeholders and interested parties to review the SakerGAP and submit comments via email to the CMS Office - Abu Dhabi (firstname.lastname@example.org) by 30 April 2014.
Photograph courtesy Gabor Papp/www.raptorimages.hu
[Read on] [version française]
International Experts Meet in Edinburgh to Plan the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey
Edinburgh, 20 January 2014 – International experts on birds of prey will convene today in Edinburgh, Scotland, to review conservation priorities within the framework of a UN agreement on migratory raptors in Africa and Eurasia. It is the First Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (Tag1) to the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) and will be held over four days.
The TAG1 meeting documents are available here.
Workshop in Romania to update the European Action Plan for the Lesser Spotted Eagle
Abu Dhabi, 6 January 2014 – During the period of 31 October–2 November 2013, in the framework of the LIFE Project ”Conservation of Aquila Pomarina in Romania,” funded by the European Commission and the Romanian Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, more than 50 ornithologists from 16 European countries attended an international Workshop to update the European Action Plan for the Conservation of the Lesser Spotted Eagle.
[Read on - Press release from the Workshop organizers]
First Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (TAG1) to the Raptors MOU
Abu Dhabi, 29 December 2013 –
The First Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (TAG1) to the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) will be held on 20-23 January 2014 in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom. TAG comprises 10 Regional Representatives covering Africa (3), Asia (2), Europe (3), and the Middle East and North Africa (2), and six experts. Terms of Reference and priority tasks for the TAG were agreed at the First Meeting of Signatories to the Raptors MOU. The TAG’s overall mission is to assist and support Signatories in the effective implementation of the Raptors MOU, including the Action Plan. The main objectives of the first meeting are to review and prioritize the list of tasks assigned by Signatories, develop a TAG 2-year WorkPlan, and introduce the online platform on which TAG members will work together electronically over the next two years.
TAG1 is being organized with the generous support from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Scottish Natural Heritage on behalf of the UK and Scottish Governments, respectively.
The CMS Notifications announcing the TAG members and TAG1 are available here. TAG1 documents are available here . For any queries about the meeting, please contact email@example.com .
Libya Becomes the 46th Signatory to the Raptors MOU
Bonn, 29 November 2013 – Libya signed the CMS Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) at a ceremony organized during a Coordination Meeting on Bird Netting in Egypt in Libya held in Bonn, Germany.
Mr. Essam Mohamed Bouras, Head of Protected Area Section at the Environment General Authority, signed the Raptors MOU on behalf of the Libyan Government. In a short statement, he asserted Libya’s commitment to conserve migratory birds of prey as these species are a key component of the country’s rich biodiversity.
Libya is situated on an important migratory route for African-Eurasian birds of prey, and offers particularly important staging areas and stop-over habitats for migrants that cross the Mediterranean Sea in spring and autumn each year. Twenty-six of the migratory birds of prey species listed on the Raptors MOU occur in Libya. Five of these, the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), the Sooty Falcon (Falco concolor), the Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) and the Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) are globally threatened, based on IUCN criteria.
Currently, there are some major knowledge gaps about the status and routes used by migratory birds of prey in Libya. Sooty Falcons are believed to breed in parts of the Libyan Desert but this assessment is based on information gathered more than 50 years ago. Libya’s signature of the Raptors MOU represents a new and important opportunity to gather up-to-date knowledge and information to fill the gaps, including in collaboration with other Signatories. It should also assist in developing plans and implementing actions to address some of the many threats facing birds of prey in the modern world.
Libya is the 46th Signatory to the Raptors MOU. The instrument will become effective in the country on 1 December 2013.
Photograph courtesy of Francsco Rilla, UNEP/CMS
African Raptor DataBank (ARDB) and Raptors MoU join forces to promote capture of much needed observations of African birds of prey by birdwatchers
Abu Dhabi, 26 November 2013 – The African Raptor DataBank (ARDB) is an ambitious non-profit, citizen science project. It aims to inspire birdwatchers and other observers to submit information that will reveal the conservation status of raptors and their habitats throughout Africa. It will also help develop the local expertise needed to monitor these indicator species in the future and to implement sound strategies to safeguard them. The Coordinating Unit of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) has joined forces with ARDB to assist Signatories in Africa to better understand and conserve the raptor riches they hold.
Africa has a higher diversity of birds of prey than any other continent: some 169 species occur regularly, 69% of which are endemic to Africa or its associated islands. These various species constitute more than 75% of all raptor species worldwide. More than 60% of the migratory raptors covered by the Raptors MOU occur in Africa. Currently, a huge knowledge gap exists in the distribution and ecology during migration and in the wintering areas for many of these species. Surveys, monitoring programmes and observations are needed over much of Africa in order to establish successful conservation programmes.
Villagers, Scientists and Policy-Makers Unite to Conserve the Amur Falcon in Nagaland
by Nick P. Williams
Abu Dhabi, 13 November 2013 - For many decades, Amur Falcons (Falco amurensis) have been known to congregate in Nagaland, northeast India for a short period from mid-October to mid-November each year. The state appears to be a stop-over site during their annual migration from breeding grounds in Russia, China and Mongolia, to wintering areas in Southern Africa. Details have always been sketchy primarily because Nagaland was a closed state, with very few outsiders allowed access.
In recent years, however, some entry permits have been granted and in 2012 a team from a non-Governmental organization (NGO) called Conservation India visited the Wokha region at the critical time. They documented huge concentrations of Amur Falcons roosting in the area. Worryingly though, the local villagers were harvesting large numbers for human consumption, including on a commercial scale with falcons being transported to be sold in markets far beyond the villages located near the roosts.
Nagaland - Falcon Capital of the World
Abu Dhabi / Bonn, 6 November 2013 - Earlier this week an international team of ornithologists counted over 1 million Amur Falcons entering a night roost near Wokha in Nagaland. Nick Williams, Head of the Coordinating Unit of the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) said, ‘This is by far the largest and most spectacular roost of any species of falcon ever seen anywhere in the world, it represents a unique and irreplaceable part of the rich biodiversity of Nagaland’.
Last year, Nagaland, a small State in NE India made global environment news for the wrong reasons. A hard-hitting campaign by Indian conservationists published graphic video images to expose a mass harvest of Amur Falcons – a small but long distant migrant bird of prey that breeds in Eastern Russia and China, and annually flies around 22,000km all the way across Asia, over the Indian Ocean to wintering grounds in Southern Africa.
CMS Raptors MoU Celebrates its 5th Anniversary
Abu Dhabi, 1 November 2013 - Today the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) turns five years old. The MOU was concluded in Abu Dhabi, where the Coordinating Unit of the Raptors MOU was also established thanks to the generous and ongoing voluntary contribution from the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi, on behalf of the Government of the United Arab Emirates.
UNEP/CMS Executive Secretary Bradnee Chambers said: “The Raptors MOU is playing a key role in protecting endangered birds of prey on a global scale thanks to the support of the United Arab Emirates and other donors. We urge more countries to join the Raptors MOU to help coordinate international conservation actions for these endangered species.”
[Read on] [version française][Arabic][deutsch]
Saker Falcon Task Force Develops Global Action Plan
Abu Dhabi / Bonn, 23 September - International experts have taken a major step towards developing a comprehensive plan for the recovery of the endangered Saker Falcon. Over 70 representatives from different governments, nature conservation authorities and NGOs throughout the range of the species participated at the Saker Falcon Task Force - Stakeholders’ Action Planning Meeting held 9 - 11 September in Abu Dhabi. They elaborated the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) Global Action Plan which covers the conservation threats, challenges they face and the roles and responsibilities for the next steps.
[Read on] [version française][Arabic]
Workshop representatives define steps to save the Saker Falcon
Abu Dhabi, 15 September 2013 - The Saker Falcon Task Force - Stakeholders’ Action Planning Workshop that convened in Abu Dhabi 9-11 September 2013 saw participants take major steps towards developing a comprehensive Saker Falcon Global Action Plan for the recovery of this endangered species. Over 70 representatives from many different governments, nature conservation authorities and NGOs throughout the range of the species identified actions covering the conservation threats and challenges they face and the roles and responsibilities for the next steps in the Global Action Plan.
The meeting concluded that an adaptive management system for the species will include positive conservation action on the breeding grounds to enhance the population, enhanced monitoring, and a framework for legal harvest of the species, for use in traditional falconry. Information gaps were identified and a research programme will be developed to address them.
Egypt becomes the 45th Signatory to the Raptors MOU
Abu Dhabi, 9 September 2013 - Egypt signed the CMS Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU) during the opening of the Saker Falcon Task Force - Stakeholders’ Action Planning Workshop in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Dr. Fatma Abou Shouk, Chief Executive Officer of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency signed the CMS Raptors MoU on behalf of Egypt, making it the 45th Signatory. Egypt is believed to hold the largest breeding population of the threatened Sooty Falcon anywhere the world. The country is also critically important bottleneck for huge numbers of many species of migratory birds of prey annually. On behalf of CMS, the Coordinating Unit of the Raptors MoU welcomes Egypt onboard to strengthen international efforts to conserve this spectacular group of migratory birds.
Call for posters, publicity materials and informal
presentations at the Saker Falcon Task Force - Stakeholders’
Action Planning Workshop, 9 – 11 September,
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Abu Dhabi, 13 August 2013
- The Coordinating Unit (CU) of the Raptors MoU opens
a call for applications from Range States of the Saker
Falcon, partner organizations and other interested
parties, to display a poster or to submit publicity
material (e.g. brochures, flyers) on a topic relevant
to Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) conservation
at the forthcoming STF Stakeholders’ Action
We are planning to hold an informal
session during the evening of Tuesday 10 September
2013 for Workshop participants to deliver short (15
- 20 minute) presentations on relevant national or
international Saker conservation projects or activities
in which they are involved.
Application forms are available
Please return completed application form(s) to the
by Thursday 22 August 2013. The CU
will review the received applications and contact
all applicants in due course.
Successful applicants will receive
further information regarding shipping of materials,
etc. Please do not hesitate to contact the CU if you
need further information.
Sweden Joins International Coalition to Conserve Migratory Birds of Prey
Bonn, 4 July 2013 – Sweden has signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU), which was concluded in 2008 under the auspices of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). Peter Örn, Desk Officer at the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency signed the Raptors MOU on behalf of the Swedish Minister of Environment Lena Ek, today at the UN Premises in Bonn, Germany.
Press Release: Tunisia Engages in Raptor
Conservation under the Convention on Migratory Species
27 May 2013 - Tunisia today signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MOU) under the auspices of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).
The signing ceremony took place immediately after the opening of the CMS Technical Workshop on Minimising Poisoning of Migratory Birds, which is being held this week in Tunis.
on Press Release - Communiqué de presse]
Experts Join Forces to Protect the Sooty Falcon
Dhabi, 11 March 2013 - The Sooty Falcon
(Falco concolor) is a fast, highly agile
bird of prey that feeds on small birds and insects
captured in flight. It is classified as 'Near Threatened'
in the IUCN Red List and is listed in ‘Category
1’ (Globally and Near Threatened species) of
the UNEP/CMS Raptors MOU, primarily due to suspected
It breeds in harsh desert and semi-arid
habitats, in and around the Middle East, and spends
the winter on Madagascar, with small numbers remaining
along the South-East littoral zone of Africa.
Raptors MoU 1st Meeting of Signatories: More
Countries Commit to Conserving Threatened Migratory
Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia
Abu Dhabi, 12 December 2012 – For the first time, 100 representatives from almost 50 countries came together to discuss urgent actions to step up international conservation efforts for threatened raptor species. Niger and Somalia both signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU), established under the auspices of the UNEP Convention on Migratory Species. This brings the total number of Signatories to 42.
[Press release] [Communiqué de presse] [Arabic version]
report of MoS1]
release 9 December]
Over 40 countries work together
to improve the conservation status of migratory birds
UNEP Convention on Migratory
Species convenes international meeting to combat threats
to migratory raptors
Abu Dhabi, 4 December 2012
– For the first time, 100 representatives
from more than 40 countries will come together to
discuss urgent actions to step up protection for threatened
species of migratory birds of prey.
This gathering from 9- 11 December
is the 1st Meeting of Signatories to the Memorandum
of Understanding on the Conservation of Migratory
Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU),
convened under the auspices of the UNEP Convention
on Migratory Species. Her Excellency Razan Khalifa
Al Mubarak, Secretary General of the Environment Agency
- Abu Dhabi, has been invited to open the meeting.
for consultancy - Coordinator for the Sooty Falcon
Abu Dhabi, 2 November 2012 – The Sooty Falcon (Falco concolor) is classified as Near Threatened due to its moderately small and apparently declining population. It is listed in Category 1 (Globally and Near Threatened species) of the Raptors MoU. There is a clear need to establish coordinated international actions to gather more accurate and comprehensive information on the global population status and the main threats to this species. Accordingly, the Interim Coordinating Unit (ICU) of the Raptors MoU has published a call for a consultancy: Coordinator for the Sooty Falcon International Single Species Action Plan. Deadline for applications is 30 November 2012.
[Terms of Reference]
Raptor Research and Conservation Network - 8th Symposium
Pune, India, 1 November 2012
- The organizers of the 8th Symposium of the Asian
Raptor Research and Conservation Network have issued
the first announcement of the event., which takes
place in Pune, India from 6th to 9th February 2014.
Further information on the event
can be obtained from Dr. Satish Pande, Organizing
Secretary, 8th ARRCN Symposium, India Prof. Milind
Watve, IISER, Pune, India, who can be contacted at
Call for applications: side-event, exhibition
stand or poster presentation at Raptors MoU MoS1
Abu Dhabi, UAE, 4 October 2012
- The Interim Coordinating Unit (ICU) of the Raptors
MoU opens a call for applications for Signatories,
Range States, partner organizations and stakeholders
of the Raptors MoU to run a side-event, exhibition
stand or poster presentation on a topic relevant to
migratory birds of prey conservation and management.
Application forms are available here. Please return
the completed application form(s) to Dragana
Stojkovic at the ICU (dstojkovic[at]cms.int)
by Sunday 21 October 2012. The ICU will review the
received applications and contact selected participants
in due course.
International Vulture Awareness Day
Abu Dhabi, UAE, 29 August 2012 - Around the world, countries from Canada to Germany and India are holding activities to contribute to International Vulture Awareness Day (IVAD) which takes place on 1 September 2012. Vultures are easily recognizable birds, with a long history of importance to many cultures including the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Tibetan Buddhists and Zoroastrians. As scavengers who feed primarily on carrion (animals which are already dead), vultures are associated not only with death but also with renewal.
International Vulture Awareness Day was created through cooperative efforts by the Birds of Prey Programme, South Africa and the Hawk Conservancy Trust, England. Their local Vulture Awareness Days grew into an international event aimed at increasing awareness of vulture conservation. For example, a novel educational tool with conservation benefits which will be showcased in some locations for IVAD is the ‘Vulture restaurant’. These ‘restaurants’ provide carcasses free from contamination for vultures to consume, ideally in an area with habitat suitable for breeding and nesting, where visitors can observe their feeding behaviour.
[Press Release] [Communiqué
de presse] [Arabic
Saker Falcon Task Force Meets in Abu Dhabi MoU
2012– The Meeting report is now available
together with Annex 5, the STF Revised Work
Plan, and Annex 6, CMS
Resolution10.28 on the Saker Falcon.
See also the initial report dated 29 March 2012
and Slovakia Sign the UNEP/CMS Raptors MoU
15 May 2012– France and the Slovak
Republic signed the UNEP/CMS Memorandum of Understanding
on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in
Africa and Eurasia (Raptors MoU). The Signing Ceremonies
took place during the 5th Meeting of Parties of
the UNEP African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement
(AEWA), which is being held this week at La Rochelle
The UNEP/CMS Raptors MoU was signed by Ambassador
Jean-Pierre Thébault, on behalf of the Government
of France on Monday, 14 May. France hosts significant
breeding and wintering populations of many of the
migratory birds of prey covered by the Raptors MoU,
and is also located on a major raptor flyway.
World Migratory Bird Day - Pointe de Grave
Verdon-sur-Mer, 13 May 2012 - The Interim
Coordinating Unit of the Raptors MoU and the League
for the Protection of Birds (LPO) Aquitaine co-organized
a special 'Bird
Migration Watch' day at the Pointe
de Grave in South West France on World
Migratory Bird Day. LPO was also celebrating
its100th anniversary! The weather was perfect and
almost 50 enthusiasts gathered to witness over ten
thousand birds pass over Northwards heading to their
breeding areas. This total included almost 200 birds
of prey, comprising 7 species such as 80+ European
Honey Buzzards (Pernis apivorus), 40+ Black
Kites (Milvus migrans), 5 Short-toed Snake-eagles
(Circaetus gallicus), 2 Western Marsh Harriers
(Circus aeruginosus) and 19 Eurasian Hobbies
(Falco subbuteo). Before the end of the
day, everyone enjoyed a delightful picnic by the
sea comprising fresh local products to celebrate
a highly successful day.
Many other events and initiatives
were held around the world. For example, Nature
Conservation Egypt produced an Arabic
song and video to raise awareness of
the threats to migratory birds as part of the GEF
and UNDP funded Migratory Soaring Birds (MSB) Project,
being implemented by BirdLife International within
11 countries along the Rift Valley Flyway in the
Middle East and North-East Africa. Most of the species
(i.e. 32 out of 37) covered by the MSB
Project are migratory raptors.
more here] [version
100 telescopes at Pointe de Grave on
13 May 2012 - World Migratory Bird Day celebrates
the 100 years of the League for the Protection
2012– On 13 May 2012, as part of
the World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD), a day for discovering
bird migration will take place on the study site
of Pointe de Grave at Le Verdon sur Mer in Gironde.
WMBD is a global awareness campaign held annually
to promote the conservation of migratory birds and
their habitats worldwide. It was initiated in 2006
by the Secretariats of the Convention on the Conservation
of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS, also
known as the Bonn Convention) and the African-Eurasian
Waterbird Agreement (AEWA), two international treaties
on migratory wildlife under the auspices of the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
The year 2012 is also the 100th of the League for
the Protection of Birds (LPO). To celebrate this
anniversary, ornithologists and friends of birds
are invited to participate to this event.
Summit to Save Africa’s Vulture
20 April 2012, Abu Dhabi –
The 1st Pan African Vulture Summit (PAVS) was convened
in the Masai Mara, Kenya on 16-20 April 2012 and
invited input from a wide range of Vulture specialists,
researchers and Government wildlife representatives
from across the continent. The objective was to
gather information from both local and regional
perspectives and to devise and promote the implementation
of a Pan-African Vulture Conservation Plan. The
Plan aims to provide a broad framework for effective
conservation action that can be adjusted to suit
the situation and needs of individual regions, countries
and areas and to facilitate the implementation of
action in areas where there currently is little
or no focus on the conservation of Vultures.
Saker Falcon Task Force Meets in Abu Dhabi
March 2012, Abu Dhabi – The UNEP/CMS
Office - Abu Dhabi is holding the inaugural meeting
of the Saker Falcon Task Force in Abu Dhabi, United
Arab Emirates (UAE), today, 29 March 2012. It is
expected to welcome almost 30 participants from
18 different countries, including Government officials
and representatives from international and non-Governmental
release - English] [Arabic
see also the update of 25 July
Raptors MoU – 100 days as Programme
February 2012, Abu Dhabi – Programme
Officer, Nick P. Williams, reports back on his first
100 days in office.
CMS 10th Conference of the Parties (COP10)
held in Bergen, Norway 20–25 November 2011
- In addition to meeting and listening to the views
of delegates from as many Range States as possible,
most of our efforts were focused on supporting the
Saker Falcon Working Group that was established
to consider the implications of the European Union-led
proposal to uplist the species onto CMS Appendix
I. The Group met on seven occasions during the week
and comprised 38 representatives from Saker Falcon
Range States and other interested parties. Highly
intensive negotiations held in a positive and constructive
atmosphere led to the development of CMS Resolution
10.28 that was unanimously adopted at the plenary
session on the final day (click
Saker Falcon Task Force Takes Off
11 January 2012, Abu Dhabi –
The Saker Falcon Task Force (STF) was established
by Resolution 10.28, adopted at the 10th Conference
of the Parties (COP10) to CMS, held in Bergen, Norway,
in November 2011. The text of the Resolution is
available online here.
The Task Force aims to bring together Range States,
Partners and interested parties, to develop a coordinated
Global Action Plan, including a management and monitoring
system, to conserve the Saker Falcon (Falco
cherrug). It will operate under the auspices
of the Interim Coordinating Unit (ICU) of the Raptors
Under the mandate granted at CMS COP10, the ICU
of the Raptors MoU has taken forward preparations
to establish the Task Force. Terms of Reference
have been drafted for adoption at the 1st meeting
of the STF. These Terms of Reference have been circulated
to all key Saker Falcon Range States, Partners and
other interested parties, along with a request for
Expressions of Interest from representatives who
wish to be considered to serve on the STF. A call
for a consultant to act as Specialist Technical
Advisor (Raptors) to the STF has also been posted
on the CMS
The ICU is planning to host the 1st meeting of
the STF on 29 March 2012 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Welcome to Nick P Williams
as Programme Officer (Raptors - Birds of Prey)
Dhabi, 2 November 2011 - The Interim Coordinating
Unit for the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on
the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa
and Eurasia welcomed a new Programme Officer this
week as Mr Nick P. Williams joined the UNEP/CMS
Office in Abu Dhabi.
Nick has held a lifelong interest
in birds, particularly raptors. Whilst still at
school, he began voluntary fieldwork with the Royal
Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and other
non-governmental conservation organizations. He
has travelled extensively to study raptors in over
50 countries and has gained practical field experience
of a wide range of species. Nick is a qualified
bird ringer and has published a range of scientific
research papers, mostly related to birds.