1. Field of Application
1.1 The Action Plan is applicable to the populations
of migratory waterbirds listed in Table 1 to this
Annex (hereafter referred to as "Table 1").
1.2 Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex.
Any reference to this Action Plan includes a reference
to Table 1.
2. Species Conservation
2.1 Legal measures
2.1.1 Parties with populations listed in column A
of Table 1 shall provide protection to those populations
listed in accordance with Article III, paragraph 2(a),
of this Agreement. Such Parties shall in particular
and subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below:
(a) prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those
populations occurring in their territory;
(b) prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as
such disturbance would be significant for the conservation
of the population concerned; and
(c) prohibit the possession or utilization of, and
trade in, birds or eggs of those populations which
have been taken in contravention of the prohibitions
laid down pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, as well
as the possession or utilization of, and trade in,
any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such
birds and their eggs.
By way of exception for those populations listed
in Categories 2 and 3 in Column A only and which are
marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable
use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established
cultural practice. This sustainable use shall be conducted
within the framework of special provisions of a species
action plan at the appropriate international level.
2.1.2 Parties with populations listed in Table 1
shall regulate the taking of birds and eggs of all
populations listed in column B of Table 1. The object
of such legal measures shall be to maintain or contribute
to the restoration of those populations to a favourable
conservation status and to ensure, on the basis of
the best available knowledge of population dynamics,
that any taking or other use is sustainable. Such
legal measures, subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below,
shall in particular:
(a) prohibit the taking of birds belonging to the
populations concerned during their various stages
of reproduction and rearing and during their return
to their breeding grounds if the taking has an unfavourable
impact on the conservation status of the population
(b) regulate the modes of taking;
(c) establish limits on taking, where appropriate,
and provide adequate controls to ensure that these
limits are observed; and
(d) prohibit the possession or utilization of, and
trade in, birds and eggs of the populations which
have been taken in contravention of any prohibition
laid down pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph,
as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade
in, any parts of such birds and their eggs.
2.1.3 Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions
laid down in paragraphs 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, irrespective
of the provisions of Article III, paragraph 5, of
the Convention, where there is no other satisfactory
solution, for the following purposes:
(a) to prevent serious damage to crops, water and
(b) in the interests of air safety or other overriding
(c) for the purpose of research and education, of
re-establishment and for the breeding necessary for
(d) to permit under strictly supervised conditions,
on a selective basis and to a limited extent, the
taking and keeping or other judicious use of certain
birds in small numbers; and
(e) for the purpose of enhancing the propagation
or survival of the populations concerned.
Such exemptions shall be precise as to content and
limited in space and time and shall not operate to
the detriment of the populations listed in Table 1.
Parties shall as soon as possible inform the Agreement
secretariat of any exemptions granted pursuant to
2.2 Single Species Action Plans
2.2.1 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing
and implementing international single species action
plans for populations listed in Category 1 of Column
A of Table 1 as a priority and for those populations
listed with an asterisk in Column A of Table 1. The
Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development,
harmonization and implementation of such plans.
2.2.2 Parties shall prepare and implement national
single species action plans for the populations listed
in Column A of Table 1 with a view to improving their
overall conservation status. This action plan shall
include special provisions for those
populations marked with an asterisk. When appropriate,
the problem of accidental killing of birds by hunters
as a result of incorrect identification of the species
should be considered.
2.3 Emergency Measures
Parties shall, in close cooperation with each other
whenever possible and relevant, develop and implement
emergency measures for populations listed in Table
1, when exceptionally unfavourable or endangering
conditions occur anywhere in the Agreement Area.
Parties shall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing
populations listed in Table 1 into parts of their
traditional range where they no longer exist. They
shall endeavour to develop and follow a detailed re-establishment
plan based on appropriate scientific studies. Re-establishment
plans should constitute an integral part of national
and, where appropriate, international single species
action plans. A re-establishment plan should include
assessment of the impact on the environment and shall
be made widely available. Parties shall inform the
Agreement secretariat, in advance, of all re-establishment
programme for populations listed in Table 1.
2.5.1 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary,
prohibit the introduction of non-native species of
animals and plants which may be detrimental to the
populations listed in Table 1.
2.5.2 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary,
require the taking of appropriate precautions to avoid
the accidental escape of captive birds belonging to
2.5.3 Parties shall take measures to the extent feasible
and appropriate, including taking, to ensure that
when non-native species or hybrids thereof have already
been introduced into their territory, those species
or their hybrids do not pose a potential hazard to
the populations listed in Table 1.
3. Habitat Conservation
3.1 Habitat Inventories
3.1.1 Parties, in liaison where appropriate with
competent international organizations, shall undertake
and publish national inventories of the habitats within
their territory which are important to the populations
listed in Table 1.
3.1.2 Parties shall endeavour, as a matter of priority,
to identify all sites of international or national
importance for populations listed in Table 1.
3.2 Conservation of Areas
3.2.1 Parties shall endeavour to continue establishing
protected areas to conserve habitats important for
the populations listed in Table 1, and to develop
and implement management plans for these areas.
3.2.2 Parties shall endeavour to give special protection
to those wetlands which meet internationally accepted
criteria of international importance.
3.2.3 Parties shall endeavour to make wise and sustainable
use of all of the wetlands in their territory. In
particular they shall endeavour to avoid degradation
and loss of habitats that support populations listed
in Table 1 through the introduction of appropriate
regulations or standards and control measures. In
particular, they shall endeavour to:
(a) ensure, where practicable, that adequate statutory
controls are in place, relating to the use of agricultural
chemicals, pest control procedures and the disposal
of waste water, which are in accordance with international
norms, for the purpose of minimizing their adverse
impacts on the populations listed in Table 1; and
(b) prepare and distribute information materials,
in the appropriate languages, describing such regulations,
standards and control measures in force and their
benefits to people and wildlife.
3.2.4 Parties shall endeavour to develop strategies,
according to an ecosystem approach, for the conservation
of the habitats of all populations listed in Table
1, including the habitats of those populations that
3.3 Rehabilitation and Restoration
Parties shall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore,
where feasible and appropriate, areas which were previously
important for the populations listed in Table 1.
4. Management of Human Activities
4.1.1 Parties shall cooperate to ensure that their
hunting legislation implements the principle of sustainable
use as envisaged in this Action Plan, taking into
account the full geographical range of the waterbird
populations concerned and their life history characteristics.
4.1.2 The Agreement secretariat shall be kept informed
by the Parties of their legislation relating to the
hunting of populations listed in Table 1.
4.1.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing
a reliable and harmonized system for the collection
of harvest data in order to assess the annual harvest
of populations listed in Table 1. They shall provide
the Agreement secretariat with estimates of the total
annual take for each population, when available.
4.1.4 Parties shall endeavour to phase out the use
of lead shot for hunting in wetlands by the year 2000.
4.1.5 Parties shall develop and implement measures
to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate, the use
of poisoned baits.
4.1.6 Parties shall develop and implement measures
to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate, illegal
4.1.7 Where appropriate, Parties shall encourage
hunters, at local, national and international levels,
to form clubs or organizations to coordinate their
activities and to help ensure sustainability.
4.1.8 Parties shall, where appropriate, promote the
requirement of a proficiency test for hunters, including
among other things, bird identification.
4.2.1 Parties shall encourage, where appropriate
but not in the case of core zones of protected areas,
the elaboration of cooperative programmes between
all concerned to develop sensitive and appropriate
eco-tourism at wetlands holding concentrations of
populations listed in Table 1.
4.2.2 Parties, in cooperation with competent international
organisations, shall endeavour to evaluate the costs,
benefits and other consequences that can result from
eco-tourism at selected wetlands with concentrations
of populations listed in Table 1. They shall communicate
the results of any such evaluations to the Agreement
4.3 Other Human Activities
4.3.1 Parties shall assess the impact of proposed
projects which are likely to lead to conflicts between
populations listed in Table 1 that are in the areas
referred to in paragraph 3.2 and human interests,
and shall make the results of the assessment publicly
4.3.2 Parties shall endeavour to gather information
on the damage, in particular to crops, caused by populations
listed in Table 1, and report the results to the Agreement
4.3.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to identifying
appropriate techniques to minimize damage, or to mitigate
the effects of damage, in particular to crops, caused
by populations listed in Table 1, drawing on the experience
gained elsewhere in the world.
4.3.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing
single species action plans for populations which
cause significant damage, in particular to crops.
The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development
and harmonization of such plans.
4.3.5 Parties shall, as far as possible, promote
high environmental standards in the planning and construction
of structures to minimize their impact on populations
listed in Table 1. They should consider steps to minimize
the impact of structures already in existence where
it becomes evident that they constitute a negative
impact for the populations concerned.
4.3.6 In cases where human disturbance threatens
the conservation status of waterbird populations listed
in Table 1, Parties should endeavour to take
measures to limit the level of threat. Appropriate
measures might include, inter alia, the establishment
of disturbance-free zones in protected areas where
public access is not permitted.
5. Research and Monitoring
5.1 Parties shall endeavour to carry out survey work
in poorly known areas, which may hold important concentrations
of the populations listed in Table 1. The results
of such surveys shall be disseminated widely.
5.2 Parties shall endeavour to monitor the populations
listed in Table 1. The results of such monitoring
shall be published or sent to appropriate international
organizations, to enable reviews of population status
5.3 Parties shall cooperate to improve the measurement
of bird population trends as a criterion for describing
the status of such populations.
5.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to determining
the migration routes of all populations listed in
Table 1, using available knowledge of breeding and
non-breeding season distributions and census results,
and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.
5.5 Parties shall endeavour to initiate and support
joint research projects into the ecology and population
dynamics of populations listed in Table 1 and their
habitats, in order to determine their specific requirements
as well as the techniques which are the most appropriate
for their conservation and management.
5.6 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies
on the effects of wetland loss and degradation and
disturbance on the carrying capacity of wetlands used
by the populations listed in Table 1 and on the migration
patterns of such populations.
5.7 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies
on the impact of hunting and trade on the populations
listed in Table 1 and on the importance of these forms
of utilization to the local and national economy.
5.8 Parties shall endeavour to cooperate with relevant
international organisations and to support research
and monitoring projects.
6. Education and Information
6.1 Parties shall, where necessary, arrange for training
programmes to ensure that personnel responsible for
the implementation of this Action Plan have an adequate
knowledge to implement it effectively.
6.2 Parties shall cooperate with each other and the
Agreement secretariat with a view to developing training
programmes and exchanging resource materials.
6.3 Parties shall endeavour to develop programmes,
information materials and mechanisms to improve the
level of awareness of the general public with regard
to the objectives, provisions and contents of this
Action Plan. In this regard, particular attention
shall be given to those people living in and around
important wetlands, to users of these wetlands (hunters,
fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local authorities
and other decision makers.
6.4 Parties shall endeavour to undertake specific
public awareness campaigns for the conservation of
the populations listed in Table 1.
7.1 When implementing this Action Plan, Parties shall,
when appropriate, give priority to those populations
listed in Column A of Table 1.
7.2 Where, in the case of populations listed in Table
1, more than one population of the same species occurs
on the territory of a Party, that Party shall apply
conservation measures appropriate to the population
or populations that have the poorest conservation
7.3 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with
the Technical Committee and with the assistance of
experts from Range States, shall coordinate the development
of conservation guidelines in accordance with Article
IV, paragraph 4, of this Agreement to assist the Parties
in the implementation of this Action Plan. The Agreement
secretariat shall ensure, where possible, coherence
with guidelines approved under other international
instruments. These conservation guidelines shall aim
at introducing the principle of sustainable use. They
shall cover, inter alia:
(a) single species action plans;
(b) emergency measures;
(c) preparation of site inventories and habitat management
(d) hunting practices;
(e) trade in waterbirds;
(g) reducing crop damage; and
(h) a waterbird monitoring protocol.
7.4 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with
the Technical Committee and the Parties, shall prepare
a series of international reviews necessary for the
implementation of this Action Plan, including:
(a) reports on the status and trends of populations;
(b) gaps in information from surveys;
(c) the networks of sites used by each population,
including reviews of the protection status of each
site as well as of the management measures taken in
(d) pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each
country relating to the species listed in Annex 2
to this Agreement;
(e) the stage of preparation and implementation of
single species action plans;
(f) re-establishment projects; and
(g) the status of introduced non-native waterbird
species and hybrids thereof.
7.5 The Agreement secretariat shall endeavour to
ensure that the reviews mentioned in paragraph 7.4
are updated at intervals of not more than three years.
7.6 The Technical Committee shall assess the guidelines
and reviews prepared under paragraphs 7.3 and 7.4,
and shall formulate draft recommendations and resolutions
relating to their development, content and implementation
for consideration at sessions of the Meeting of the
7.7 The Agreement secretariat shall regularly undertake
a review of potential mechanisms for providing additional
resources (funds and technical assistance) for the
implementation of this Action Plan, and shall make
a report to each ordinary session of the Meeting of
I - Status of the Populations of Migratory Waterbirds