Sousa chinensis (Osbeck,
English: Indo-Pacific-humpback dolphin, Chinese white dolphin
German: Chinesischer Weißer Delphin
Spanish: Delfín blanco de China
French: Dauphin blanc de Chine
Sousa chinensis © Würtz-Artescienza (see "links")
Humpback dolphins are medium sized and robust. Their melon is slightly
depressed and slopes gradually to an indistinct junction with the
long, narrow beak. The broad flippers are rounded at the tip and
the flukes are broad and full, with a deep median caudal notch.
The form of the dorsal fin varies geographically. Body length reaches
2.5-2.8m in different parts of the range. In South Africa, males
may reach 2.7m and 260kg as opposed to the smaller females which
only attain 2.4m and 170kg. Colour also varies greatly with age
and location, in both the timing and extent in the loss of the grey
background colour to white (pink when flushed; Ross, 2002).
For the first edition of this review, I followed Rice (1998) who
separated the genus Sousa into three species: S. chinensis
(eastern Indo-Pacific), S. plumbea (western Indo-Pacific)
and S. teuszii (eastern Atlantic). However, a recent morphological
study based on 222 dolphin skulls showed that only the distinctness
of S. teuszii
is clearcut (Jefferson and VanWaerebeek, 2004). Subsequent genetic
analyses confirmed that all Indo-Pacific populations formed a robust,
monophyletic clade (Frere et al. 2008), settling the dispute with
respect to S. chinensis and S. plumbea, which seem
to be a single species for which the name S. chinensis has
priority (Ross, 2002).
Surprisingly, however, humpback dolphins from South Africa and China
form a strongly-supported clade with the Atlantic S. teuszii,
to the exclusion of animals from Australia. This results strongly
suggest that Australian humpback dolphins are not S. chinensis
but may represent a distinct species in their own right (Frere et
The Chinese white dolphin is discontinuously distributed in coastal
waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Known areas of occurrence
from west to east are False Bay (18°30'E) in Cape Province,
north along the coast of eastern Africa, including Madagascar, to
the Red Sea as far north as Gulf of Suez, the Arabian Sea, and the
Persian Gulf, thence east along the coasts of southern Asia at least
as far as Vishakhapatam on the western Bay of Bengal. It is vagrant
in the Ganges River 250 km from the sea and has also strayed into
the Mediterranean Sea via the man-made Suez Canal (Rice, 1998).
It occurs from the Bay of Bengal east to the coast of southern China,
including Taiwan, from the Gulf of Tonkin to Jiangsu, entering the
lower reaches of the Zhu Jiang (=-Canton River), the Jiulong Jiang
(=-Amoy River), and the Mim Jiang (=-Foochow River), and ascending
1,200 km up the Chang Jiang (=-Yangtse River) as far as Wuhanthe
Gulf of Thailand; the Strait of Malacca; the northwestern coast
of Borneo from Sematan in Sarawak to Sandakan in Sabah (Rice, 1998).
Following Rice (1998), this species account includes S. borneensis
(Lydekker, 1901) and S. lentiginosa (Gray, 1866).
Distribution of Sousa chinensis: shallow
coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific Ocean
(Reeves et al. 2008; © IUCN; enlarge
Finally, the distribution also includes the northwestern
coast of Western Australia between North West Cape and Larrey Point;
and the coast of eastern Australia from Cairns in Queenland to Wollonggong
in New South Wales (Rice, 1998), but this may be another species
or subspecies (see above).
3. Population size
Recent information on population size is limited and comes from
a few restricted locations. These reports present a picture of low
if not declining population numbers everywhere. The sparse data
available for selected areas indicate that humpback dolphins occur
in discrete, geographically localized populations and are susceptible
to anthropogenic threats. The summary spans the distributional area
from West to East:
Eastern Africa: The minimum population size at Algoa Bay
on the south Eastern Cape coast of South Africa was about 466 dolphins
(Karczmarski et al. 1999).
Off the KwaZulu-Natal coast (South Africa) there is a total of perhaps
200 animals (Jefferson and Karczmarski, 2001), which was confirmed
by Keith et al (2002) who reported a minimum of 181 individuals
at Richards Bay.
In the Bazaruto Archipelago in Mozambique between the mainland and
the Bazaruto islands, a 1992 survey counted 60 animals.
A mark-recapture analysis conducted between 1995 and 1997 in Maputo
Bay suggested a population size of approximately 105 dolphins, but
the precision of the estimate is low (30.5-150.9) (Guissamulo and
Around Mayotte in the northern Mozambique Channel, Kiszka et al
(2007) observed 44 humpback dolphins.
Approximately 65 humpback dolphins were observed in five groups
(mean group size of 13) off Anakao, Madagascar, during boat-based
surveys conducted in 1999. These surveys and other sources of information
indicate that humpback dolphins may largely be
restricted to the west coast (Razafindrakoto et a. 2004).
Off the south coast of Zanzibar, mark-recapture methods were used
to estimate a population size of 71 (95% CI 48-94) humpback dolphins
in a 26 km² study area in 2001 (Stensland 2004).
Persian Gulf: Estimates of cetacean abundance in the UAE
differed significantly between 1986 and 1999 and indicate a population
decline of 71%. In the region between Oman and Kuwait, the Indo-Pacific
humpback dolphin is the second most commonly observed cetacean at
sea (27%) (Preen, 2004).
In the immediate vicinity of Kuwait's Boubyan Island, a combined
total of 524 individuals were estimated in 2004-2005 (Bishop and
Indian-Humpback dolphin, plumbea-type, photographed
off Giftun, Egypt, Red Sea,
Nov. 2009 © Rasmus Nielsen, Aarhus, DK
Indian Ocean: A rough population estimate for the Indus
delta was 500 animals (Ross et al. 1994 and refs. therein). In nearshore
waters of Bangladesh, 6 humpback dolphins were observed in a 2004
survey (Smith et al. 2008). Off the Mergui (Myeik) Archipelago of
southern Myanmar 3 individuals were identified at sea (Smith and
Chinese waters: There is only limited knowledge about distribution
in the coastal waters of southern China, including Fujian, Taiwan
and Guangxi provinces, where 5 important populations of S. chinensis
can be identified, but populations appear to be in decline (Zhang
and Tang, 2008).
In Hong Kong waters sightings occurred in all of the waters surrounding
Lantau Island but were most common in the North Lantau area. Estimates
in 1995-97 ranged from 88 dolphins in spring to 155 dolphins in
autumn, with a year-round average of 109. Mark-recapture estimates
of abundance suggest that between 208 and 246 different animals
use the Hong Kong area (Jefferson and Leatherwood, 1997). Jefferson
and Karczmarski (2001, and refs. there-in) concluded that >1,028
animals occur in Hong Kong waters and the adjacent Pearl River Estuary.
A 2005 preliminary estimate of the size of the Leizhou population
is about 237 individuals, second only to the Pearl River estuary
population, suggesting that Leizhou Bay has the potential to serve
as a "humpback dolphin sanctuary" in Chinese waters (Zhou
et al. 2007).
Liu and Huang (2000) recorded 392 individuals in Xiamen waters,
with a negative population trend.
Off central western Taiwan there are few and sporadic records. Several
groups of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were sighted in 2002 and
overall 28 individuals observed (Wang et al. 2004)
Australia: Estimates for Moreton Bay in 1984-1986, and 1985-1987,
respectively, were163 animals (95% confidence intervals 108-251),
and 119 animals (95% confidence intervals 81-166); preliminary results
for Cleveland Bay, in the Central Section of the Great
Barrier Reef, suggest a population less than 200 animals (Ross,
2006; Parra et al. 2004).
4. Biology and Behaviour
Habitat: S. chinensis is rarely found more than a
few kilometres from shore, preferring coasts with mangrove swamps,
lagoons, and estuaries and areas with reefs, sandbanks, and mudbanks.
Animals sometimes enter rivers, though rarely more than a few kilometres
upstream and usually within the tidal range (Carwardine, 1995).
They prefer water less than 25 m deep and, on more open coasts,
are typically found in the surf zone (Ross, 2002).
In Algoa Bay, South Africa, no apparent preference for clear or
turbid water was observed, water depth probably being the main factor
limiting their inshore distribution; the 25-m isobath seems to represent
the critical depth. Within this confined, inshore distribution,
dolphin activities concentrate in the vicinity of rocky reefs-their
primary feeding grounds and "key habitat" (Karczmarksi
et al. 2000). These habitat preferences were confirmed by aerial
surveys of the Great Barrier Reef region, which showed that humpbacked
dolphins occur mostly in waters close to the coast, although they
also occur in offshore waters that are relatively sheltered, and
close to reefs or islands (Corkeron et al. 1997).
Photo: Lindsay Porter/WWF
Behaviour: The species is usually quite difficult to approach
and tends to avoid boats by diving and reappearing some distance
away in a different direction. They rarely permit a close approach
before diving, splitting up into small groups or single animals
(Carwardine,1995; Ross et al.1994).
Schooling: Humpback dolphins form small schools throughout
their distribution, ranging from one to about 25 dolphins off South
Africa and the northern Indian Ocean (Ross et al. 1994 and references
therein). In Maputo Bay, Mozambique, estimated group size was 14.9
individuals and was the largest reported for the eastern Africa
region. There was no change with month, season, daylight, or tidal
state (Guissamulo and Cockroft, 2004). Off Kuwait, however, group
size in 159 sightings was low; 40% of sightings were comprised of
a single individual and 26% consisted of pairs. Pods of 10 or more
members were observed on 13 occasions (Bishop and Alsaffar, 2008).
Off southern China, schools usually contain three to five animals.
In Moreton Bay, Queensland, mean group size was 2.4 animals (range
1-9, n =9). S. chinensis associates with bottle-nose dolphins
and, to a lesser extent, with finless porpoises and spinner dolphins
(Ross et al. 1994).
Reproduction: Some calves may be born throughout the year,
but spring or summer calving peaks are the norm. Gestation lasts
10-12 months, and age at sexual maturity is 10 years in females
and 12-13 years in males (Jefferson and Karczmarski, 2001. Some
females may cycle outside of the apparent summer breeding season,
perhaps indicating a secondary winter season. Circumstantial evidence
suggests a minimum of a 3-year calving interval. Maternal care lasts
at least 3-4 years, but female-calf separation is seemingly not
related to the female's next pregnancy (Karczmarski, 1999).
Food: According to Ross (2002), food consists mainly of fish
and cephalopods, dolphins temporarily beaching to retrieve bonefish
washed onto exposed sandbanks. Fish species comprise sardines, mackerel,
mullet and other near-shore fishes. Off southern Africa humpback
dolphins seem to feed on or close to reefs along rocky coastal areas
in preference to areas with sandy bottoms (Reyes, 1991 and refs.
therein; Ross et al. 1994 and refs. therein).
All 503 prey items in the stomachs of 17 dolphins captured in shark
nets off Natal, South Africa, were fish. Numerically, the major
prey species were Thryssa vitrirostris (46.4%), Trickiurus
lepturus (9.2%), Pomadasys olivaceum (8.6%), Otolithes
ruber (7.2%), and Diplodus sargus (3.6%). The remaining
24% comprised a further 28 prey species. Nearly 61% of all fish
were littoral or estuarine species, and a further 25% were demersal
species primarily associated with reefs (Ross et al. 1994 and references
Humpback dolphins in China feed on several species of demersal and
estuarine fishes, with little evidence of predation on cephalopods
or crustaceans (Jefferson and Hung, 2004). Stomachs of two dolphins
netted off the northern Queensland coast contained fish remains,
and in one case, some crustacean fragments. In Moreton Bay, southeastern
Australia, humpback dolphins feed with bottlenose dolphins on trawl
discards (Ross et al. 1994 and refs. therein).
Indo-Pacific Sousa are not known to be migratory (Ross 2002),
although numbers of animals increase seasonally in South Africa.
Some seasonal inshore-offshore and longshore movements are recorded
for West African Sousa and these most likely cross international
boundaries. In Richards Bay, South Africa, photo-identification
suggests that some humpback dolphins display long-distance movement
patterns (up to 150 km), while other individuals display long-term
residency within the area (Keith et al. 2002).
A high level of seasonal immigration of humpback dolphins into,
and emigration from, the Algoa Bay region in summer has been reported
(Karczmarski 1999, 2000). There is evidence for summer influxes
of humpback dolphins into eastern Maputo Bay, and there are considerable
numbers of apparently transient individuals. A substantial proportion
of humpback dolphins (13.5%) display high site fidelity to eastern
Maputo Bay and could be long-term residents (Guissamulo and Cockroft,
2004). Migration of the species along the coast is related to the
movements of the fishes on which they feed. In other areas, movements
are poorly understood (Reyes, 1991 and refs. therein).
The Pearl River, southern China, influences the hydrography of
the region, notably with regard to turbidity, salinity, pH, tides,
currents and temperature of the waters of Hong Kong and Lingding
Bay. Consequently the dramatic increase in its freshwater output
during the summer also changes fish distribution, which in turn
influences the abundance distribution of Hong Kong's Pacific humpback
cetaceans (Parsons 2002a). Dolphins in Hong Kong and the Pearl River
Estuary have individual ranges averaging 99.5 km², which is
only a small portion of the population's range (Jefferson and Hung,
2004). Seasonal changes in their abundance were significantly correlated
with water temperature (positively) and salinity (negatively) (Parsons
Humpback dolphins appear to be present throughout the year off
southern China and northern Queensland (Ross et al. 1994). However,
stranding rates differ between various seasons (with peaks during
the summer monsoon), which seems to indicate variable dolphin densities
and possibly seasonally differing habitats (Parsons, 1998a).
Direct catch: Small numbers have been taken for food and
oil in the Red Sea, Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf, and meat is consumed
on the southwest coast of India (Calicut). This may still be practiced
today (Reyes, 1991 and refs. therein; Jefferson et al. 1993). They
are also among the dolphin species intentionally targeted for their
meat in south-western Madagascar. From interview surveys, 22 humpback
dolphins had been recorded as directly hunted (Razafindrakoto et
a. 2004). Ross (2006) reported that live capture may occur in Queensland,
and North South Wales, Australia, with permits granted for up to
12 per year at present.
By-catches: The inshore distribution of these dolphins makes
them very susceptible to many human activities in the coastal zone,
particularly those relating to fishing. Fishing nets, including
seine nets and especially gill nets set for sharks and other large
fish, pose the greatest threat to humpback dolphins throughout much
of their distribution. Entanglements in gillnets are reported from
Zanzibar, Djibouti, the Arabian Gulf, the Indus delta, the south-west
coast of India (Ross et al. 1994 and references therein; Lal Mohan,1988),
Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Iraq, Kuwait (Reyes, 1991, and refs. therein),
Madagascar (Razafindrakoto et a. 2004), Bangladesh (Smith et al.
2008), Myanmar (Smith and Tun, 2008) and China (Chen et al. 2005)
Fisheries interactions in China are made responsible for the decline
of the population (Wang and Han, 2007).
On Unguja island of Zanzibar, the level of reported incidental
catches in artisanal gillnet fisheries in 1999 was 5 Indo-Pacific
humpback dolphins, extrapolated to approx. 10 in the whole fleet
(Amir et al. 2002). As a follow-up to that survey, from January
2000 to August 2003, incidental catches of dolphins in drift- and
bottom set gillnets collected from 12 fish landing sites were recorded.
In total, 11 Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were caught.
Most of the bycatches (71%) were in nets set off the north coast
of Unguja Island. This estimate may be high enough as to have a
significant negative impact on local populations (Amir et al. 2005).
Dolphins are also caught in shark nets set to protect bathing beaches
along the Natal coast, South Africa. At least 67 humpback dolphins
were caught in the Natal nets between 1980 and 1989, or about 7-8
animals per year (Ross, 2002). Anti-shark nets are a source of ongoing
incidental mortality in South Africa (Reyes, 1991 and refs. therein;
Atkins et al. 2004).
Dolphins are also caught in shark nets set to protect bathing beaches
along the coast off Queensland and New South Wales (Reyes, 1991;
Parra et al. 2004). Accurate catch data for humpback dolphins in
the Australian nets are unavailable, though six of 10 dolphins examined
by Heinsohn et al. (1980, in Ross et al. 1994) were taken from shark
nets. Some specimens were taken in an offshore driftnet fishery
operating off northern Australia (Reyes, 1991, and references therein).
Mass strandings: Between 23 August and 30 October 1986, over
500 dead dolphins were found on the western shores of the Persian
Gulf, primarily those of Saudi Arabia and Qatar. At least 140 of
these were humpback dolphins (Ross et al. 1994). The cause of this
mortality, which included three other odontocete species, dugongs,
sea turtles and fish, was not estab-lished conclusively.
Habitat degradation: Increased use of sensitive habitats
also poses a threat to humpback populations. Pilleri and Pilleri
(1979, in Ross et al. 1994) pointed to the reduction in prime habitat
for these dolphins in the Indus delta through construction of harbor
facilities, drainage and destruction of mangroves, pollution and
boat traffic which disturbs their habitat. Dolphins are no longer
present in the lower reaches of rivers because of the construction
of dams, silting of river mouths and increasing pollution (Reyes,
1991 and refs. therein).
The disposal of contaminated mud arising from Hong Kong's dredging
and reclamation projects poses a risk to the Indo-Pacific humpback
dolphin via reduced abundance of prey species (Clarke et al. 2000).
Acoustic disturbance results from industrial activity underwater,
such as pile-driving during land-reclamation as in the construction
of Hong Kong Kai Tak airport. Würsig et al. (2000) reported
on the successful development of an air bubble curtain to reduce
underwater noise of percussive piling.
Hong Kong is one of the busiest ports in the world with approximately
half a million oceanic and river-going vessels per year and thirty
high-speed and hydrofoil ferries daily passing through the area
of greatest humpback dolphin abundance (Parsons, 1997a). Boat traffic
seems to interfere with acoustic communication between the animals
(Parijs et al. 2001). Between 1993 and 1998 four Pacific humpback
dolphin strandings were diagnosed to have been caused by boat strikes
(Parsons and Jefferson, 2000). This represents 14% of all humpback
dolphin strandings during this period (Parsons and Jefferson, 2000;
Parsons, 2004). Lu and Fang (2008) reported on a stranded animal
which had ingested parts of a gillnet.
Pollution: Off the South African coast, organochlorine levels
are the highest found in any marine mammal. These levels may affect
the reproductive efficiency of males and be lethal to neonates of
females pregnant for the first time (Reyes, 1991 and refs. therein).
Hong Kong's population of Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphins inhabits
an area where a high volume of sewage waste discharge and the close
proximity of contaminated mud pits mean a considerable potential
for trace metal contamination (Parsons 1998c). Mercury concentrations
in dolphin tissues were an order of magnitude higher than in prey
items and could be considered potentially health threatening (max:
906 µg/kg dry wt.) (Clarke et al. 2000). The concentrations
of organochlorines were significantly higher than those found in
various seals collected from other parts of the world. Correlations
between the concentrations of tris-chlorophenyl compounds with other
persistent organochlorines such as HCHs, CHLs, DDTs and PCBs were
significant, suggesting their bio-accumulation (Minh et al. 1999).
Concentrations of the flame-retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs)
in animals collected from the South China Sea (31-380ng/g lipid)
were higher by one order of magnitude than in finless porpoises
(4.7-55ng/g lipid), which was attributed to habitat differences
(Isobe et al. 2007). The concentrations of yet another flame retardant,
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), ranged from a low value
of 6.0 ng/g lipid wt. in spinner dolphins (Stenella
longirostris) from India to a high value of 6000 ng/g lipid
wt. in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from Hong Kong (Kajiwara et
al. 2006). The pesticides PCB and DDT also showed high concentrations
in animals collected from Hong Kong waters, and the ratio of DDT
to its breakdown products (and other information) suggests that
there may be a recent or nearby source of DDT discharging into the
dolphins' ecosystem (Ramu et al. 2005; Jefferson et al. 2006).
Hong Kong discharges over 2,000 million litres of sewage into its
coastal waters every day. Bacteria can gain egress into the mammalian
body by a variety of routes, and Parsons (1997b) estimated that
a Hong Kong humpback dolphin's minimum daily intake of sewage bacteria
through ingesting contaminated seawater alone could be up to 70,500
faecal coliforms/day. By comparison a one-off ingestion rate of
200-300 coliforms is considered to be unacceptable for humans (Parsons,
According to Parsons (2002b) it is also extremely likely that many
areas populated by humpback dolphins are highly contaminated with
butyltin. For example, humpback dolphins inhabit the waters of several
coastal ports in Asia that host a large volume of shipping and,
therefore, potential butyltin pollution, e.g., Shanghai, Bombay,
Singapore and Hong Kong. However, next to nothing is known about
levels or effects of BT contamination on these cetaceans, and analysis
of BT contamination in the tissues of humpback dolphins in areas
of high shipping traffic should be a priority
Noise pollution: Würsig and Greene (2002) reported on heavy
noise pollution in Hong Kong harbour, potentially masking echolocating
sounds and acoustic communication in humpback dolphins. The noise
is related to heavy vessel traffic.
Tourism: Karczmarski et al. (1997, 1998) reported that the behaviour
of Indian humpback dolphins in Algoa Bay, South Africa was not affected
by the presence of bathers or surfboats. However, powerboats did
cause changes in behaviour, and when these vessels were present
avoidance reactions were observed by the dolphins in 95.3% of occasions
(Karczmarski et al. 1998). The response to boat traffic involved
the animals taking a long dive, changing their direction and swimming
away perpendicular to the route of the boat (Karczmarski et al.
In Kizimkazi (Zanzibar) marine mammals were previously used as bait
for sharks. However, in the mid 1990's the local fishermen realised
that their touristic value far exceeded their value as shark bait.
As many as 2,000 tourists visit the dolphin site at Kizimkaki per
month. Dolphin-tourism is currently becoming a popular economic
activity. Successful management of the dolphin-tourist trade will
ensure continued visitors to the villages where dolphins are present
and thus add income to these villages while contributing to management
and conservation (Ali and Jiddavi, 1999).
Range states (Reeves et al. 2008) :
Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China;
Comoros; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; Ethiopia; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia;
Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Kenya; Kuwait; Macao; Madagascar;
Malaysia; Mozambique; Myanmar; Oman; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea;
Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Somalia; South Africa;
Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic
of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam; Yemen.
Sousa chinensis is listed in Appendix II of CMS. Sousa sp.
is listed in Appendix I of CITES. The IUCN considers S. chinensis
as "Near Threatened". This is based on the fact that although
the population may consist of more than 10,000 individuals, it is
under substantial threat by fisheries activities and habitat degradation.
It is possible that the reductions in population size have been
large and pervasive enough to cause a net reduction for the entire
species of at least 30% over a period of 3 generations. The species
may however be re-classified as "Vulnerable" in the near
future, if population size was estimated to lie below 10,000 individuals,
with a discontinuous distributional range (Reeves et al. 2008).
More research on biology, taxonomy, stock identity and movements
is needed. Assessment of ecological impact should be requested of
development projects through the range. Compilation of Information
on direct takes and incidental mortality should be encouraged.
See also general recommendations on Southeast Asian stocks in Perrin
et al. (1996) in Appendix
2. Recommendations for further research are given by Jefferson
· Ali O, Jiddawi NS (1999) Dolphin tourism and community
participation in Zanzibar: The case of Kizimkazi Village. Conference
on Advances on Marine Sciences in Tanzania Zanzibar Tanzania Ims
1999, pp. 48-48.
· Carwardine M (1995) Whales, dolphins and porpoises. Dorling
Kindersley, London, UK, 257 pp.
· Amir OA, Berggren P, Jiddawi P (2002) The incidental catch
of dolphins in gillnet fisheries in Zanzibar, Tanzania. West Indian
Ocean J Mar Sci 1: 155-162
· Amir OA, Jiddawi NS, Berggren P (2005) The occurrence and
distribution of dolphins in Zanzibar, Tanzania, with comments on
the differences between two species of Tursiops. West Indian
Ocean J Mar Sci 4: 85-93
· Atkins S, Pillay N, Peddemors VM (2004) Spatial distribution
of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) at Richards
Bay, South Africa: Environmental influences and behavioural patterns.
Aquat Mamm 30: 84-93
· Bishop JM, Alsaffar AH (2008) Quantitative observations
on marine mammals and reptiles of Kuwait's Boubyan Island. Zool
Middle East 43: 3-12
· Chen Y, Chen J, Chen H, Wu Y (2005) Pathological anatomy
and identification of death causes for four Chinese white dolphins
in Pearl River Estuary. Mar Fish Res 26: 31-35
· Clarke SC, Jackson AP, Neff J (2000) Development of a risk
assessment methodology for evaluating potential impacts associated
with contaminated mud disposal in the marine environment. Chemosphere
· Corkeron PJ , Morissette NM, Porter L, Marsh H (1997) Distribution
and status of hump-backed dolphins, Sousa chinensis, in Australian
waters. Asian Mar Biol 14: 49-59
· Frere CH, Hale PT, Porter L, Cockcroft VG, Dalebout ML
(2008) Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences suggests revision
of humpback dolphin (Sousa spp.) taxonomy is needed. Mar
Freshw Res 59: 259-268.
· Guissamulo A, Cockcroft VG (2004) Ecology and population
estimates of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis)
in Maputo Bay, Mozambique. Aquat Mamm 30: 94-102
· Isobe T, Ramu K, Kajiwara N, Takahashi S, Lam PKS, Jefferson
TA, Zhou K, Tanabe S (2007) Isomer specific determination of hexabromocyclododecanes
(HBCDs) in small cetaceans from the South China Sea - Levels and
temporal variation. Mar Pollut Bull 54: 1139-1145.
· Jefferson TA, Leatherwood S, Webber MA (1993) FAO Species
identification guide. Marine mammals of the world. UNEP/FAO, Rome,
· Jefferson TA, Leatherwood S (1997) Distribution and abundance
of Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphins (Sousa chinensis Osbeck,
1765) in Hong Kong waters. Asian Mar Biol 14: 93-110.
· Jefferson TA (2000) Population biology of the Indo-Pacific
hump-backed dolphin in Hong Kong waters. Wildl Monogr 64 (4).
· Jefferson TA, Karczmarski (2001) Sousa chinensis.
Mamm Spec 655: 1-9.
· Jefferson TA, Hung SK (2004) A review of the status of
the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Chinese
waters. Aquat Mamm 30: 149-158
· Jefferson TA, Van Waerebeek K (2004) Geographic variation
in skull morphology of humpback dolphins (Sousa spp.). Aquat
Mamm 30: 3-17
· Jefferson TA, Hung SK, Lam PKS (2006) Strandings, mortality
and morbidity of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Hong Kong, with
emphasis on the role of organochlorine contaminants. J Cetacean
Res Manag 8: 181-193.
· Kajiwara N, Kamikawa S, Ramu K, Ueno D, Yamada TK, Subramanian
A, Lam PKS, Jefferson TA, Prudente M, Chung KH, Tanabe S (2006)
Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters. Chemosphere
· Karczmarski L (1999) Group dynamics of humpback dolphins
(Sousa chinensis) in the Algoa Bay region, South Africa.
J Zool London 249: 283-293.
· Karczmarski L (2000) Conservation and management of humpback
dolphins: the South African perspective. Oryx 34: 207-216.
· Karczmarski L, Thornton M, Cockroft VG (1997) Description
of selected behaviours of humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis.
Aquat Mamm 23: 127-133.
· Karczmarski L, Cockroft VG, Mclachlan A, Winter PED (1998)
Recommendations for the conservation and management of humpback
dolphins Sousa chinensis in the Algoa Bay region, South Africa.
Koedoe 41: 121-129.
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© Illustrations by Maurizio Würtz, Artescienza.
© Maps by IUCN.