The grasslands of south-eastern South America, comprising one of the most extensive grassland ecosystems in the Neo-tropics, have suffered negative impacts from the development of the livestock industry, arable agriculture and forestry. The grasslands have a rich avifauna that includes 22 globally threatened and near-threatened species, and many other species have suffered local population extinctions and range reductions. In addition to habitat loss and fragmentation, grassland birds in these ecosystems are threatened by improper use of agrochemicals, unfavourable fire management regimes, pollution and illegal capture and hunting.