As an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme, CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats. CMS brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.

As the only global convention specializing in the conservation of migratory species, their habitats and migration routes, CMS complements and co-operates with a number of other international organizations, NGOs and partners in the media as well as in the corporate sector.

Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I of the Convention. CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them. Besides establishing obligations for each State joining the Convention, CMS promotes concerted action among the Range States of many of these species.

Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention. For this reason, the Convention encourages the Range States to conclude global or regional agreements.

In this respect, CMS acts as a framework Convention. The agreements may range from legally binding treaties (called Agreements) to less formal instruments, such as Memoranda of Understanding, and can be adapted to the requirements of particular regions. The development of models tailored according to the conservation needs throughout the migratory range is a unique capacity to CMS.

Access the text of the Convention on Migratory Species and the Appendices.


Titlesort descending Status Status date CMS Party number Region
Liechtenstein Party 1997 52 Europe
Lithuania Party 2002 79 Europe
Luxembourg Party 1983 1 Europe
Macedonia Party 1999 64 Europe
Madagascar Party 2007 101 Africa
Malawi Non-Party Africa
Malaysia Non-Party AM Asia
Maldives Non-Party AM Asia
Mali Party 1987 24 Africa
Malta Party 2001 74 Europe
Marshall Islands Non-Party Oceania
Mauritania Party 1998 54 Africa
Mauritius Party 2004 86 Africa
Mexico Non-Party North America
Micronesia Non-Party AM Oceania
Monaco Party 1993 40 Europe
Mongolia Party 1999 65 Asia
Montenegro Party 2009 111 Europe
Morocco Party 1993 42 Africa
Mozambique Party 2009 112 Africa
Instrument nameConvention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
Website URL
OtherSummary of the application of CMS to Overseas Territories/Autonomous Regions of Parties and of reservations regarding species in the CMS Appendices
PDF icon Convention text (English)29.28 KB
PDF icon Texte de la Convention (français)32.24 KB
PDF icon Texto de la Convención (español)36.45 KB
PDF icon ConventionText (Arabic) نص الاتفاقية422.25 KB
PDF icon Convention Text (Chinese) 公约文本746.12 KB
PDF icon Convention Text (Russian) текст Конвенции337.12 KB
PDF icon Application of CMS to Overseas Territories/Autonomous Regions of Parties & of reservations on species in the CMS Appendices143.53 KB

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